As noted above, the α/β-type SASP are the most important factors

As noted above, the α/β-type SASP are the most important factors CH5424802 solubility dmso protecting spore DNA against a number of damaging treatments, including wet and dry heat (Setlow, 1988, 2007). Consequently, despite the importance of Nfo in repairing DNA damage during spore germination/outgrowth (Ibarra et al., 2008), the results in this communication and previous work strongly suggest that in dormant wild-type spores, α/β-type SASP provide sufficient DNA protection against wet and dry heat such that

Nfo alone is not a major factor in spore resistance to these treatments (Setlow, 1988, 2007). In contrast, a large increase in the spores’ Nfo level was sufficient to render nfo exoAα−β− spores even more resistant than wild-type spores to wet and dry heat (Fig. 2b and e). The structural properties of Nfo that permit it to bind and scan undamaged DNA and to act on AP sites (Salas-Pacheco

et al., 2003) may be largely responsible for this effect. Thus, the increased spore resistance induced by Nfo overexpression in spores appears to greatly increase the efficiency of elimination of DNA lesions accumulated during dormancy, in addition to the minimization of the deleterious effects of oxidative-stress-induced DNA damage generated during spore germination and outgrowth (Ibarra et al., 2008). selleck chemicals Although elevated Nfo levels increased the dry heat resistance of wild-type spores slightly, the effect was much larger when this protein was overproduced in spores lacking α/β-type SASP. These results suggest that in the presence of α/β-type SASP, the function of Nfo seems to be relatively dispensable for the dry heat resistance of spore DNA. However, in the absence of α/β-type SASP, Nfo appears to play a major role in the repair of DNA damage generated by wet or dry heat (Salas-Pacheco et al., 2003). One somewhat surprising result in this work was the much higher dry heat resistance of exoA nfoα−β− spores with high Nfo levels than that of wild-type spores with high Nfo levels. selleck inhibitor We do not know the reason for this result, but perhaps dry heat treatment

of wild-type spores, in which the DNA is saturated with α/β-type SASP, generates a different spectrum of DNA damage than is generated in α/β-type SASP-free DNA. However, at least some of the DNA damage generated in wild-type spores by dry heat is AP sites, as shown previously and in this work. One additional type of DNA damage that could result from dry heat treatment is DNA strand breaks. Although we have not studied this possibility further, recent reports have implicated ykoV and ykoU, members of the DNA repair by the nonhomologous-end joining system, in the processing of strand breaks putatively generated by dry heat, UV-B, UV-A and UV ionizing radiations in spores’ DNA (Wang et al., 2006; Moeller et al., 2007).

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