“Central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is suspected in patients presenting with acute-onset seizures and lethargy. The potential neurologic sequelae from untreated herpes infection can prompt empirical acyclovir therapy, even in afebrile subjects. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection in children presenting with afebrile seizures and to assess the need for empirical acyclovir therapy. Clinical and laboratory data of children with acute-onset afebrile seizures and children with central nervous system herpes
simplex virus infection were compared. Polymerase chain reaction and viral cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid for herpes simplex virus infection were negative C59 nmr in all subjects with afebrile seizures; 32.7% of these mTOR inhibitor subjects were empirically treated with acyclovir. In conclusion, central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is uncommon in children presenting with afebrile seizures, and acyclovir therapy is rarely necessary
in subjects with normal neurologic examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.”
“Diagnosis of transplant rejection requires tissue biopsy and entails risks. Here, we describe a new 19F MRI approach for noninvasive visualization of organ rejection via the macrophage host response. For this, we employed biochemically inert emulsified perfluorocarbons (PFCs), known to be preferentially phagocytized by monocytes and macrophages. Isografts from C57BL/6 or allografts from C57B10.A mice were heterotopically TGF-beta inhibitor transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients. PFCs were applied intravenously followed by 1H/19F MRI at 9.4 T 24 h after injection. 1H images showed a similar position and anatomy of the graft in the abdomen for both cases. However,
corresponding 19F signals were only observed in allogenic tissue. 1H/19F MRI enabled us to detect the initial immune response not later than 3 days after surgery, when conventional parameters did not reveal any signs of rejection. In allografts, the observed 19F signal strongly increased with time and correlated with the extent of rejection. In separate experiments, rapamycin was used to demonstrate the ability of 19F MRI to monitor immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, PFCs can serve as positive contrast agent for the early detection of transplant rejection by 19F MRI with high spatial resolution and an excellent degree of specificity due to lack of any 19F background.”
“Purpose of review
Perioperative fluid management influences patient outcome. Vascular surgery unites various surgical procedures, mainly with a high impact on patients who often have relevant preexisting illnesses. There are only scarce data on this specialty, forcing the clinician to extrapolate existing data when planning perioperative fluid management. This review aims to summarize the underlying facts.