In early 2004,981 seedlings were transplanted along transects rad

In early 2004,981 seedlings were transplanted along transects radiating from tree boles of overstory Q alba trees to inter-canopy gaps and monitored for three growing seasons. Seedlings in restored sites had greater survival (>2 x), height growth (by >50%), and basal

diameter growth (by >20%). In general, seedling survival and growth parameters increased with distance from overstory trees and were greatest in inter-canopy gaps of restored sites. By the MK-8931 in vitro final growing season (2006), the seedling survival-by-distance from tree correlation was stronger in control (r(2) = 0.25) than treatment sites (r(2) = 0.18), due to relatively uniform (and greater) survival at all distances from trees in treatment sites. In 2006, growth parameters (seedling height, diameter, Delta height, Delta diameter, and # leaves) were significantly (and more strongly) positively correlated with distance from trees in treatment sites. However, seedling herbivory was also greater after treatment and increased with distance from overstory trees. To understand seedling/ microenvironment relationships, we created logistic (survival) and linear regression models (Delta height, Delta basal diameter, # leaves in 2006). Control seedling models had consistently greater predictive power and included more

variables, suggesting that savanna restoration may decouple seedlings from their microenvironments, potentially by decreasing competition for limiting resources. PD-1 assay Encroachment of the savannas in this study is limiting regeneration of Q. alba, suggesting substantially altered regeneration dynamics from those under which these savannas originally formed. Initial responses from our test of restoration, however, were promising and mechanical encroachment removal may be a means to promote overstory regeneration of this species. Finally, the savannas in this study appear inherently unstable and a scattered canopy tree configuration is unlikely to persist without regular disturbance, even in the

restoration sites. AZD6244 ic50 Repeated mechanical thinning treatments with selected retention of recruiting Q alba individuals or reintroduction of understory fire or grazing animals may be potential mechanisms for promoting long-term persistence of savannas at these sites. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex. In Pakistan, members of the complex, MEAM1 and AsiaII 1, are the predominant species infesting cotton. The biology of the two on cotton, collard, cucumber and tomato was studied. RESULTS: In all cases there were significant interactions between species and host. MEAM1 developmental periods did not differ significantly across hosts, whereas AsiaII 1 developed more slowly on vegetables than on cotton. MEAM1 survival was highest on tomato (53.5 +/- 1.

The FDA statement asserting that the use of 5 alpha-reductase inh

The FDA statement asserting that the use of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention could increase the risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer also indirectly questions

the value of direct androgen response manipulation for long-term benefit. These reports illustrate the need for a fresh and comprehensive analysis of advanced prostate cancer pathology to promote the next generation of effective adjuvant therapies. One such avenue is that of differentiation therapy, which seeks to promote the differentiation of cancer stem cells into a phenotype more sensitive to anticancer therapy than their parents. Using differentiation therapy with current antiandrogen selleck screening library therapies should augment our armoury of treatment for the management of advanced prostate cancer.”
“The healing of a fracture depends largely on the development of a new blood vessel network (angiogenesis) in the callus. During angiogenesis tip cells lead the developing sprout in response to extracellular signals, amongst which vascular Selleckchem STI571 endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical. In order to ensure a correct development of the vasculature, the balance between stalk and tip cell phenotypes must be

tightly controlled, which is primarily achieved by the Dll4-Notch1 signaling pathway. This study presents a novel multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, incorporating lateral inhibition of endothelial cells (further denoted MOSAIC model) through Dll4-Notch1 signaling, and applies it to fracture healing. The MOSAIC model correctly predicted the bone regeneration process and recapitulated many experimentally observed aspects of tip cell selection: the salt and pepper pattern seen for cell fates, an increased tip cell density due to the loss of Dll4 and an excessive number of tip cells in high VEGF environments. When VEGF concentration was even further increased, the MOSAIC model predicted the absence of a vascular network and fracture healing, thereby leading GS-9973 to a nonunion, which is a direct consequence of the mutual inhibition of

neighboring cells through Dll4-Notch1 signaling. This result was not retrieved for a more phenomenological model that only considers extracellular signals for tip cell migration, which illustrates the importance of implementing the actual signaling pathway rather than phenomenological rules. Finally, the MOSAIC model demonstrated the importance of a proper criterion for tip cell selection and the need for experimental data to further explore this. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the MOSAIC model creates enhanced capabilities for investigating the influence of molecular mechanisms on angiogenesis and its relation to bone formation in a more mechanistic way and across different time and spatial scales.


“Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; ge


“Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; gene symbol Hinfp) mediates cell cycle

control of histone H4 gene expression to support the packaging of newly replicated DNA as chromatin. The HiNF-P/p220(NPAT) complex controls multiple H4 genes in established human cell lines and is critical for cell proliferation. The mouse Hinfp(LacZ) null allele causes early embryonic lethality due to a blastocyst defect. However, neither Hinfp function nor its temporal expression relative to histone H4 genes during fetal development has been explored. Here, we establish that expression of Hinfp is biologically coupled with expression of twelve functional mouse H4 genes during pre- and post-natal tissue-development. Both Hinfp and H4 genes are robustly expressed at multiple embryonic (E) days (from E5.5 to E15.5), coincident with ubiquitous LacZ staining driven by the Hinfp promoter. Selleckchem CHIR 99021 Five highly expressed mouse H4 genes (Hist1h4d, Histh4f, Hist1h4m selleck products and Hist2h4) account for >90% of total histone H4 mRNA throughout development. Post-natal expression of H4 genes in mice is most evident in lung, spleen, thymus and intestine, and with few exceptions (e.g., adult liver) correlates with Hinfp gene expression. Histone H4 gene expression decreases but Hinfp levels remain constitutive upon cell growth inhibition in culture. The in vivo co-expression

of Hinfp and histone H4 genes is consistent with the biological function of Hinfp as a principal transcriptional regulator of histone H4 gene expression during mouse development. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Metabolic activation of new chemical entities to reactive intermediates is routinely monitored in drug discovery and development. Reactive intermediates may bind to cellular macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and may eventually lead to cell death via necrosis, apoptosis or oxidative stress. The evidence that the ultimate outcome of metabolic activation is an adverse drug reaction manifested as in vivo

toxicity, is at best circumstantial. However, understanding the process of bioactivation of structural alerts by trapping the reactive intermediates is critical to guide medicinal chemistry efforts in quest for safer and potent molecules. This commentary provides a brief introduction to adverse drug Fosbretabulin reactions and mechanisms of reactive intermediate formation for various functional groups, followed by a review of chemical design approaches, examples of such strategies, possible isosteric replacements for structural alerts and rationalization of laboratory approaches to determine reactive intermediates, as a guide to today’s medicinal chemist.”
“The development of alternative, non-fluorinated membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells necessitates the co-development of a non-fluorinated electrode catalyst binder to ensure compatibility between membrane and electrode.

Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0 05) sera PO4

Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered

in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is Bcl-2 inhibitor warranted.”
“Lateral ventricular meningiomas are rare tumours that pose considerable surgical challenge. Navitoclax cost This study attempts to analyse some of the important clinical features of these tumours and review technical considerations in surgery for lateral ventricular meningiomas. A retrospective analysis of the case records of patients with lateral ventricular meningiomas operated in our institute since 1998 with a minimum of one year follow up was done. The variables analysed included age, sex, clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, histopathology and

operative details. Outcome was analysed using the Glasgow outcome score (GOS). Fifteen patients with a mean age of 40.6 years formed the study group. A female preponderance was observed (M:F 5:10). Raised intracranial pressure was the predominant symptom at presentation (10/15; 66%) followed by visual field deficits

(6/15; 40%) and contralateral motor deficits (5/15; 33.3%). One patient presented with evidence of intratumoural bleed. The tumour was on the right side in 7 patients and on the left side in 8 patients. The lesion was located in the trigone of the lateral ventricle in 13 patients and in the body of the ventricle in two. The tumours were excised through a parietooccipital approach in 11 (73.33%) patients and through a middle temporal gyrus approach in 4 (26.66%).The tumour recurred in 2 patients, both tumours being histologically fibroblastic variants. Fresh operative complications included motor deficits in 3, contralateral homonymous hemianopia in 2, dysphasia in 1, refractory learn more seizures in 2 and loculated hydrocephalus in one. We had no operative mortality. At last follow-up for 10 patients were in GOS 5, two were in GOS 4 and three in GOS 3. Lateral ventricular meningiomas are difficult tumours to operate. Total surgical excision through a superior parietal lobule or middle temporal gyrus approach is possible in most cases with minimal morbidity.”
“Background: Multiple studies have shown cigarette smoking to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether smoking similarly increases the risk for progression of membranous nephropathy.

However, we report an unusual case in a setting of known renal ce

However, we report an unusual case in a setting of known renal cell carcinoma disease, where initial pathology and culture data were misleading. Appropriate follow-up and a high index of suspicion will remain necessary. Surgical excision

is the treatment of choice. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Introduction: single-stage laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis and associated common bile duct stones (CL-CBDS) has shown similar results when compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with ERCP. Classically, choledochorrhaphy has been protected by a T-tube drain to allow external GNS-1480 supplier bypass of bile flow. However, its removal is associated with a significant complication rate. Use of antegrade biliary stents avoids T-tube removal associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to compare the results of choledochorrhaphy plus T-tube drainage versus antegrade biliary stenting in our series

of laparoscopic common bile duct explorations (LCBDE).\n\nMaterial NCT-501 inhibitor and methods: between 2004 and 2011, 75 patients underwent a LCBDE. Choledochorrhaphy was performed following Kehr tube placements in 47 cases and transpapillary biliary stenting was conducted in the remaining 28 patients.\n\nResults: postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the stent group (5 +/- 10.26 days) than in the Kehr group (12 +/- 10.6 days), with a statistically significant difference. There was a greater trend to grade B complications in the stent group (10.7 us. 4.3 %) and to grade C complications in the Kehr group (6.4 us. 3.6 %). There were 3 cases of residual common bile duct stones in the Kehr group (6.4 %) and none in the stent group.\n\nConclusions: antegrade biliary

stenting following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for CL-CBDS is an effective and safe technique that prevents T-tube related morbidity.”
“Barley is an economically important cereal crop especially for feed and malt production, but its value as food is increasing due to various health benefits. Wild barley is the progenitor of modern day barley cultivars possessing a rich source of genetic variation for various biotic and abiotic stresses. Species-specific molecular markers have great potential for efficient introgression of Selleck Barasertib these important traits from wild to cultivated barley. In the present study, 140 microsatellite markers were screened to assess the genetic variation and species-specific markers between wild and cultivated germplasm. Of these 140, a polymorphic set of 48 genomic (gSSR) and 16 EST-SSRs amplified a total of 685 alleles. Cluster analysis discriminated all 47 accessions and classified wild and cultivated genotypes into two distinct groups, according to their geographic origin. Our analysis indicated that gSSRs were more informative than EST-based SSRs. Results from PCoA analysis for species-specific alleles clearly suggest that wild barley genotypes contain a higher number of unique alleles.

Remarkably, transitivity was impaired proportionally with the len

Remarkably, transitivity was impaired proportionally with the length of the pre-mRNA, and not of the mRNA. The latter result suggests that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-based spreading of silencing progresses along the non-spliced rather than the fully processed mature mRNA.”
“Arachnoiditis involving optic nerve and the find more optic chiasm can occur as a complication of tuberculous meningitis

(TBM). This study evaluates the clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and laboratory parameters and imaging findings of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA) and also tried to identify any factors which can predict this complication in patients with TBM. Patients admitted with TBM in the neurology wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 6 years formed the material for this study. Students “t” test and

univariate analysis were done to identify any predictors for this complication and the variables found to be significant were further analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. One hundred sixty-three patients with TBM, admitted over a 6-year period, were studied. Twenty-three (14) patients developed OCA. Eighteen out of 23 (78) developed this complication while on antituberculous treatment (ATT) and 5/23 (22) were newly diagnosed cases of TBM. Of those already on treatment, 12/23 (52) were receiving only ATT, the remaining 6/23 (26) had received steroids along with ATT in varying doses and duration. The average period from diagnosis of TBM to visual symptoms was 6.4 months. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex (P < 0.037), age Anlotinib order less Selleck MI-503 than 27 (P < 0.008) years and protein content in the CSF > 260 mg (P < 0.021) were the factors predisposing toward this complication. At 6 months follow-up, on treatment with steroids and ATT,

17 had improvement and no further deterioration was noted in visual acuity in 52. OCA can develop even while on treatment with ATT. Young women with a high CSF protein content seem to be more prone for this complication.”
“The aim of this study is to determine the short-term effects of fire on nitrogen and phosphorus soil concentration in heathland sites dominated by Calluna Vulgaris in the Cantabrian Mountain range (NW Spain). Three C. vulgaris heathlands sites (San Isidro, Riopinos I and Riopinos II) were selected. In June 2005, one plot (20 m x 20 m) per site was subjected to an experimental fire and the other was used as a control. Immediately after the fire, ten ash samples and ten soil samples (at a depth of 5 cm) were collected and thoroughly mixed. Soil moisture, temperature, total N, NH4+, NO3-, total P, available P and pH were determined in each sample. The quantity of ashes deposited was 300 g/m(2), with a pH of 9, low N content but higher P concentrations. Significant differences in temperature and soil moisture were detected between the fire-treated and control plots.

A 68-year-old

A 68-year-old GDC-0973 mouse woman presented with progressive bilateral pulsatile tinnitus, headache and diplopia accompanied by swelling of both eyes, the right eye being more

severely affected. She underwent surgical reconstruction of fractured facial bone 6 weeks ago due to car accident. From the 30th days after reconstruction, she suffered persistent progressive pulsatile tinnitus and periorbital pain. The MRA revealed marked leakage signals of arterial blood around cavernous sinus (Figure 1). The source image of MRA revealed increased transsellar collaterals, enlarged both sphenoparietal sinus and right side predominant elongated bilateral tortuous superior ophthalmic veins (Figure 2).”
“Background/Purpose: Quadriceps-sparing minimally invasive total selleck products knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been proposed

to limit surgical dissection without compromising surgical outcome. We conducted a prospective and randomized study to compare the outcomes of patients who underwent quadriceps-sparing TKA with the outcomes of those who underwent standard medial parapatellar TKA, after a 2-year follow-up period.\n\nMethods: Eighty primary TKA procedures that were to be performed in 60 osteoarthritis patients were randomly assigned to either a quadriceps-sparing (40 knees) or a standard medial parapatellar (40 knees) group. All surgeries were designed to set the prosthesis with a femoral component alignment of 7 degrees valgus and a tibial component alignment that was perpendicular to the tibial shaft. Surgical time and tourniquet time were find more recorded. Outcome variables included knee

function, as defined by a hospital for special surgery knee score; quadriceps muscle strength, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer; pain, as indicated on a visual analog scale; prosthetic position, which was measured on plain radiograph; and range of motion.\n\nResults: Patients who underwent the 38 quadriceps-sparing and 37 standard TKA procedures completed the 2-year follow-up period without any infection or revision. The mean surgical time and tourniquet time were significantly longer in the quadriceps-sparing group. The mean peak quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring muscle strength, normalized muscle balance (hamstring/quadriceps ratio), pain score, function score, and range of motion were comparable in both groups at 2 months and 2 years. In the quadriceps-sparing group, both the femoral and the tibial components were significantly more varus-deviated from the expected position.\n\nConclusion: Patients undergoing quadriceps-sparing and standard medial parapatellar TKA had comparable outcomes for quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring-quadriceps balance, and knee function; however, the quadriceps-sparing TKA was more time consuming surgically and resulted in a less accurate prosthesis position. Copyright (C) 2012, Elsevier Taiwan LLC & Formosan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing

They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing Epigenetics inhibitor outcomes.

Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased the estimated number of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in WA by around 25%, however this increase was accompanied by lower overall proportions of low birth weight and low gestational age babies.\n\nConclusions: Record linkage of survey data to administrative data sets is useful to validate the quality of recording of demographic information in administrative data sources, and such information can be used to adjust for differential identification in administrative data.”
“Introduction: Heparin is known to efficiently attenuate metastasis in various tumour models by different mechanisms including inhibition of tumour cell contacts with soluble and cellular components Dorsomorphin inhibitor such as inhibition of heparanase or P- and L-selectin. We recently showed that heparin efficiently binds to VLA-4 integrin in melanoma cells in vitro. Here we describe VLA-4 integrin as a mediator of melanoma metastasis that is inhibited by the low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) Tinzaparin. Materials and Methods: sh-RNA-mediated

knock-down of VLA-4 integrin in B16F10 murine melanoma cells (B16F10-VLA-4kd) was performed and cell binding characteristics were investigated in vitro. Experimental metastasis of B16F10-VLA-4kd and B16F10 cells and interference by Tinzaparin were analysed in mice. Results: VLA-4 knock-down of B16F10 cells

resulted in loss of VCAM-1 binding, but preserved the capacity to bind platelets through P- selectin. The observed reduced metastasis of B16F10-VLA-4kd cells confirmed the role of VLA-4 in this process. However, Bioactive Compound Library loss of melanoma VLA-4 function hardly further affected reduction of metastasis in P- selectin deficient mice. Tinzaparin treatment of mice injected with B16F10 and B16F10-VLA-4kd cells significantly reduced metastasis suggesting its potential to block both P- and L-selectin and VLA-4 in vivo. The use of N-acetylated heparin, which has no VLA-4 binding activity but blocks P- and L-selectin was less efficient than Tinzaparin in mice injected with B16F10 cells and B16F10-VLA-4kd cells. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that heparin inhibits experimental melanoma metastasis primarily by blocking VLA-4 and P-selectin. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Consistent with an increasing number of comparisons between crop plants and their wild ancestors, a previous study showed that in the field, maize [Zea mays ssp. mays L. (Poaceae)] suffers more herbivory by larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) than its ancestor Balsas teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis Iltis & Doebley).

16 nm were observed Magnetic moment measurement as a function of

16 nm were observed. Magnetic moment measurement as a function of magnetic field was measured using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry at room temperature. The result showed

the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop with a curie temperature higher than 300 K.”
“Introduction: Dactolisib order Acute appendicitis is the most frequent surgical emergency arising during pregnancy. Definitive diagnosis is often difficult. The therapeutic options remain the same, i.e. appendectomy.\n\nPatients and methods: We present a series of 29 pregnant women who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis over a period of 10 years. The mean age was 28.6 years. Mean gravidity was 1.75 and mean parity was 0.84. The average period of gestation was 18 weeks and 5 days since the last menses. Seven patients underwent surgery during

the 1st trimester, 15 during the 2nd trimester, and seven during the 3rd trimester. Eighteen patients underwent appendectomy through a laparoscopic approach check details and 11 through a McBurney incision.\n\nResults: The postoperative course was uncomplicated in 27 patients. Two patients miscarried in the week following surgery.\n\nConclusions: Acute appendicitis puts both maternal and fetal prognosis at risk. Management should be prompt and undertaken by a multidisciplinary team approach. Morbidity and mortality are not negligible. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objective Obesity is a demonstrated barrier to obtaining health care. Its impact on obtaining prenatal care (PNC) is unknown. Our objective was to determine CP-456773 if obesity is an independent barrier to accessing early and adequate PNC.\n\nStudy Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who initiated PNC and delivered at our institution in 2005. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized by World Health Organization guidelines: underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (>30

kg/m(2)). Maternal history and delivery information were obtained through chart abstraction. Differences in gestational age at first visit (GA-1) and adequate PNC were evaluated by BMI category. Data were compared using chi(2) and nonparametric analyses.\n\nResults Overall, 410 women were evaluated. The median GA-1 was 11.1 weeks and 69% had adequate PNC. There was no difference in GA-1 or adequate PNC by BMI category (p = 0.17 and p = 0.66, respectively). When BMI groups were dichotomized into obese and nonobese women, there was no difference in GA-1 or adequate PNC (p = 0.41).\n\nConclusion In our population, obesity is not an independent barrier to receiving early and adequate PNC. Future work is warranted in evaluating the association between obesity and PNC and the perceived barriers to obtaining care.”
“BackgroundBaseline comorbidities influence patient outcomes in renal transplantation.

We present data showing

that Egmuc peptides were capable

We present data showing

that Egmuc peptides were capable of inducing an increase of activated NK cells in the spleen of immunized mice, a fact that was correlated with the capacity of splenocytes to mediate killing of tumor cells. We demonstrated that Egmuc peptides enhance LPS-induced maturation of dendritic cells in vitro by increasing the production of IL-12p40p70 and IL-6 and that Egmuc-treated DCs may activate NK cells, as judged by an increased expression of CD69. This evidence may contribute to the design of tumor vaccines and open new horizons in the use of parasite-derived molecules in the fight against cancer.”
“Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized trial determining

whether intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) aimed at long-term weight loss and increased physical fitness reduces cardiovascular PF00299804 morbidity and mortality in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes compared to control (diabetes support and education, DSE). We investigated the correlates of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker associated with heart failure (HF) risk, in a subsample from 15 of 16 participating centers and tested the hypothesis that ILI decreased NT-proBNP levels. Baseline and 1-year blood samples were assayed for NT-proBNP in a random sample of 1,500 without, and all 628 with, self-reported baseline CVD (cardiovascular BMS-777607 disease) (N = 2,128). Linear models were used to assess relationships that log-transformed NT-proBNP had with CVD risk factors at baseline

and that 1-year changes in NT-proBNP had with intervention assignment. At baseline, the mean (s.d.) age, BMI, and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) were 59.6 (6.8) years, 36.0 kg/m(2) (5.8), and 7.2% (1.1), respectively. Baseline geometric mean NT-proBNP was not different by condition (ILI 53.3 vs. DSE 51.5, P = 0.45), was not associated with BMI, and was inversely associated with HbA(1c). At 1 year, ILI participants achieved an average weight loss of 8.3% compared to 0.7% in DSE. At 1 year, NT-proBNP levels increased to a greater extent in Nepicastat order the intervention arm (ILI + 21.3% vs. DSE + 14.2%, P = 0.046). The increased NT-proBNP associated with ILI was correlated with changes in HbA(1c), BMI, and body composition. In conclusion, among overweight and obese persons with diabetes, an ILI that reduced weight was associated with an increased NT-proBNP.”
“An understanding of statistics is essential for analysis of many types of data including data sets typically reported in surgical pathology research papers. Fortunately, a relatively small number of statistical tests apply to data relevant to surgical pathologists. An understanding of when to apply these tests would greatly benefit surgical pathologists who read and/or write papers.