All models demonstrated moderately good discrimination, with Harr

All models demonstrated moderately good discrimination, with Harrell’s C statistics of 0.67,

0.68 and 0.69, respectively. These results are virtually identical to the internal validation that demonstrated Akt inhibitor ic50 a c-statistic of 0.69. These results provide external validation of the EPTS as a moderately good tool for discriminating posttransplant survival of adult kidney-only transplant recipients.”
“The phase transitions and rheological properties of the hydroxyethyl cellulose-water, hydroxyethyl cellulose-DMAA, hydroxyethyl cellulose-DMF, hydroxypropyl cellulose-water, hydroxypropyl cellulose-DMF and ethyl cellulose-DMAA systems were studied. The regions of existence of the isotropic and anisotropic phases were determined. Application of a magnetic Lonafarnib chemical structure field is shown to be accompanied by a change in the relative viscosity by a factor of 1.3-4. The concentration dependences of viscosity in the presence of a magnetic field are described by curves with an extremum. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Imaging plays a very important role in the diagnosis of HCC. Indeed, in high-risk patients a noninvasive diagnosis can only be obtained by imaging in presence of typical features. These features include arterial enhancement followed by washout during the portal venous and/or delayed phases on CT scan or MRI.

This pattern is quite specific and has been endorsed by both Western and Asian diagnostic guidelines. However, its sensitivity is not very high, especially for small lesions. Therefore ancillary signs may be needed to increase the reliability of the diagnosis. Recent hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents seem to be interesting to improve characterization of small nodules in the cirrhotic

liver. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Serum concentrations of fetuin A/alpha 2HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) have been linked to human metabolic alterations and can serve as an indicator of liver cell function. We assayed serum levels of AHSG in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and examined their association with clinical, biochemical and histological phenotypes.\n\nMethods: Serum AHSG levels were determined Selleck AZD6244 by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 99 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 75 age- and gender-matched controls.\n\nResults: Serum AHSG levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD (940 +/- 120 mu g/mL) compared with healthy controls (800 +/- 130 mu g/mL, Student’s t test, P < 0.001). Bivariate analyses (Spearman’s rank correlation) in patients with NAFLD showed a statistically significant association between AHSG levels and insulin resistance as assessed by the HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and the liver fibrosis score index (r = 0.36, P < 0.001).

0 pg/ml had significantly diminished survival compared with the p

0 pg/ml had significantly diminished survival compared with the patients whose serum DKK1 levels were lower (p = 0.033). The DKK1 overexpression in the cancer specimens significantly correlated with the increased serum DKK1

concentrations.\n\nConclusions: Serum DKK1 levels have the potential as a diagnostic marker at a low cutoff value and ass prognostic marker at a high cutoff selleck screening library value. Serum and tissue DKK1 levels may aid in diagnosing gastric cancer and predicting patient outcomes. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The effect of protein concentration, in the range of 0-26 mg/mL for two Fc-fusion proteins, on the crystallinity and polymorphism of mannitol and sodium chloride in a lyophilized model formulation was examined. Mannitol hydrate levels were quantified based on moisture data Epigenetics inhibitor and correlated to the X-ray diffraction peak area. In all formulation conditions, sodium chloride did not crystallize in samples with >44% total amorphous content. As protein concentration

increased through the range of 1-5 mg/ML prior to lyophilization, beta-mannitol decreased in amount, becoming undetectable at protein concentrations above 5 mg/mL. Conversely, delta-mannitol increased as a function of protein concentration, reaching a maximum level at similar to 5 mg/mL protein. Above 10 mg/mL protein, mannitol crystallization was increasingly inhibited. Sucrose control vials showed higher levels of mannitol hydrate than either model protein. Both proteins behaved comparably with respect to mannitol crystallinity and polymorphism despite significant differences in molecular weight. Because of the differences between protein and sucrose control samples, protein concentration must be taken into consideration when assessing the lyophilization of mannitol containing solutions. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:3419-3429, 2009″

used large sequence polymorphisms to determine the genotypes of 397 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Vietnamese adults with pulmonary (n = 235) or meningeal (n = 162) tuberculosis. We compared the pretreatment radiographic appearances of pulmonary tuberculosis and the presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of tuberculous meningitis 4EGI-1 supplier between the genotypes. Multivariate analysis identified variables independently associated with genotype and outcome. A higher proportion of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by the Euro-American genotype had consolidation on chest X-ray than was the case with disease caused by other genotypes (P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that meningitis caused by the East Asian/Beijing genotype was independently associated with a shorter duration of illness before presentation and fewer cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes.

This tremendous effort of the scientific community has confirmed

This tremendous effort of the scientific community has confirmed the view that cancer actually represents a wide variety of diseases originating from different organs. selleck screening library These studies showed that TP53 and PI3KCA are the two most mutated genes in all types of cancers and that 30-70% of all solid tumors harbor

potentially ‘actionable’ mutations that can be exploited for patient stratification or treatment optimization. Translation of this huge oncogenomic data set to clinical application in personalized medicine programs is now the main challenge for the future. The gap between our basic knowledge and clinical application is still wide. Closing the gap will require translational personalized trials, which may initiate a radical change in our routine clinical practice in oncology.”
“Surgical Plethysmographic Index (SPI), calculated from pulse photo-plethysmographic amplitude oscillations, has been proposed as a tool to measure nociception anti-nociception balance during general anesthesia, but it is affected by several confounding factor that alter the autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation. We hypothesized that SPI may be mainly affected by sympathetic stimulation independently from nociception. We studied the effects of two sympathetic stimuli on SPI, delivered

through passive head-up tilt at learn more 45 and 90 degrees angles, in nine awake healthy adults. The sympathetic modulation was assessed by means of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Mean (SD) SPI significantly increased from baseline to 45 degrees [from 38.6 (13.7) to 60.8 (7.6), p smaller than 0.001)] and to 90 degrees angle tilt [82.3 (5.4), p smaller than 0.001]. The electrocardiographic mean R-to-R interval significantly shortened during both passive tilts, whereas systolic arterial pressure did not change during the study protocol. HRV changed significantly during the study protocol towards a predominance of

sympathetic modulation during passive tilt. Gravitational sympathetic stimulation at two increasing angles, in absence of any painful stimuli, affects SPI in awake healthy volunteers. selleck products SPI seems to reflect the sympathetic outflow directed to peripheral vessels.”
“Histone-like proteins (such as HU, H-NS, and Fis) participate in nucleoid organization and in DNA replication, recombination, and transcription. Cold shock and anoxia upregulates a homologue of HU (Hlp) in Mycobacterium smegmatis, the nonpathogenic model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We show using electrophoretic mobility shift assays that Hlp, which in addition to the HU fold has a basic C-terminal tail containing multiple PAKK and PAAK repeats, has very high affinity for DNA. The affinity of Hlp for 76 bp linear DNA is higher, K(d) = 0.037 +/- 0.001 nM, compared to art Hlp variant without the C-terminal repeats, K(d) = 2.5 +/- 0.

“Background: Voltage-gated sodium channels dysregulation i

“Background: Voltage-gated sodium channels dysregulation is important for hyperexcitability

leading to pain persistence. Sodium channel blockers currently used to treat neuropathic pain are poorly tolerated. Getting new molecules to clinical use VS-6063 datasheet is laborious. We here propose a drug already marketed as anticonvulsant, rufinamide.\n\nMethods: We compared the behavioral effect of rufinamide to amitriptyline using the Spared Nerve Injury neuropathic pain model in mice. We compared the effect of rufinamide on sodium currents using in vitro patch clamp in cells expressing the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 isoform and on dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons to amitriptyline and mexiletine.\n\nResults: In naive mice, amitriptyline (20 mg/kg) increased withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation from 1.3 (0.6-1.9) (median [95% CI]) to 2.3 g (2.2-2.5) and latency of withdrawal to heat stimulation

from 13.1 (10.4-15.5) to 30.0 s (21.8-31.9), whereas rufinamide had no effect. Rufinamide and amitriptyline alleviated injury-induced mechanical allodynia for 4 h (maximal effect: 0.10 +/- 0.03 g (mean +/- SD) to 1.99 +/- 0.26 g for rufinamide and 0.25 +/- 0.22 g to 1.92 +/- 0.85 g for amitriptyline). All drugs reduced peak current and stabilized the inactivated state of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, with similar effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons.\n\nConclusions: At doses alleviating neuropathic pain, amitriptyline showed alteration of behavioral response possibly learn more related to either alteration of basal pain sensitivity or sedative effect or both. Side-effects and drug tolerance/compliance are major problems with drugs such as amitriptyline. Rufinamide seems to have a better tolerability profile and could be a new alternative to explore for the treatment of neuropathic pain.”
“IL-7 is an important cytokine for lymphocyte differentiation. Similar to what occurs in vivo, human CD19(+)

cells developing in selleck compound human/murine xenogeneic cultures show differential expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha (IL-7R alpha) chain (CD127). We now describe the relationship between CD127 expression/signaling and Ig gene rearrangement. In the present study, < 10% of CD19(+) CD127(+) and CD19(+) CD127(+) populations had complete VDJ(H) rearrangements. IGH locus conformation measurements by 3D FISH revealed that CD127(+) and CD127(+) cells were less contracted than pediatric BM pro-B cells that actively rearrange the IGH locus. Complete IGH rearrangements in CD127(+) and CD127(+) cells had smaller CDR3 lengths and fewer N-nucleotide insertions than pediatric BM B-lineage cells. Despite the paucity of VDJH rearrangements, microarray analysis indicated that CD127(+) cells resembled large pre-B cells, which is consistent with their low level of Ig light-chain rearrangements.

0% of upper extremity reconstruction patients experienced no post

0% of upper extremity reconstruction patients experienced no postoperative functional deficits, and 70.6% of lower extremity reconstruction patients achieved ambulatory status (without assistance). Of the 177 patients, 74.6% had no evidence of disease at last known follow-up.\n\nConclusions. Reconstructive surgery in children with cancer is complex and often requires multiple procedures, although treatment usually results in excellent functional outcomes. A multidisciplinary

approach is essential Belinostat solubility dmso in the treatment of these patients, who are still in their growth phase, to optimize their functional capacity, quality of life, and overall survival.”
“OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and acceptability of using video Internet communication to teach and evaluate surgical skills in a low-resource setting.\n\nMETHODS: This case-controlled study used video Internet communication for surgical skills teaching and evaluation. We randomized intern physicians rotating in the Obstetrics and Gynecology

Department at Mulago Hospital at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, to the control arm (usual practice) or intervention arm (three video teaching sessions with University of California, San Francisco faculty). We made preintervention and postintervention selleck inhibitor videos of all interns tying knots using a small video camera and uploaded the files to a file hosting service that offers cloud storage. A blinded faculty member graded all of the videos. Both groups completed a survey at the end of the study.\n\nRESULTS: We randomized 18 interns with complete data for eight in the intervention group and seven in the control group. We found score improvement of 50%

or more in six of eight (75%) interns in the intervention group compared with one of seven (14%) in the control group (P-.04). Scores declined in five of the seven (71%) controls but in none in the intervention group. Both intervention and control groups used attendings, colleagues, and the Internet as sources for learning about knot-tying. CA3 concentration The control group was less likely to practice knot-tying than the intervention group. The trainees and the instructors felt this method of training was enjoyable and helpful.\n\nCONCLUSION: Remote teaching in low-resource settings, where faculty time is limited and access to visiting faculty is sporadic, is feasible, effective, and well-accepted by both learner and teacher.”
“Background/Objective: G-8 screening tool showed good screening properties for identifying vulnerable elderly patients with cancer who would benefit from a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). We investigated whether tumour site and metastatic status affected its accuracy.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting: Geriatric-oncology clinics of two teaching hospitals in the urban area of Paris.

02), and group 1 patients having lateral oropharynx disease had s

02), and group 1 patients having lateral oropharynx disease had significantly better swallowing MDADI scores at the 12-month follow-up visit (P=.04).\n\nConclusion: FRAX597 Advanced-stage oropharynx and supraglottis cancers managed by transoral robotic surgery with adjuvant therapy resulted in significantly better swallowing MDADI outcomes at the follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months compared with tumors treated by primary chemoradiotherapy. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;139(1):43-48. Published online December 17, 2012. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.1074″
“Gemcitabine (GEM) is the front-line standard chemotherapy

used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer; however, chemoresistance to GEM remains the major obstacle to the successful control of this disease. Both the expression levels and activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) are important features of tumor-initiating and/or cancer stem cell properties in multiple types Bucladesine nmr of human cancer. As one of the intrinsic properties of cancer stem cells is drug resistance, in this study, we examined the correlation between the level and activity of endogenous ALDH1A1 and GEM resistance in the MIA PaCa-2 cell line that contains high expression levels and activity of ALDH1A1. We used small interfering RNAs (si RNAs) to deplete ALDH1A I and investigate its potential role in conferring GEM resistance.

The ALDH1A1 knockdown markedly reduced ALDH1A1 expression and activity and inhibited cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-siRNA and GEM significantly decreased cell viability, increased apoptotic cell death and increased the accumulation of cells at the S-phase compared to the controls. Our data also demonstrated that ALDH1A1 expression and activity were significantly higher in the GEM-resistant MIA PaCa-2 cell line (MIA PaCa-2/GR), SIS3 chemical structure compared to the parental MIA PaCa-2 cell line (MIA PaCa-2/P). In the MIA PaCa-2/GR cells, the combination of ALDH1A1-siRNA and GEM also showed a significant decrease

in cell viability and an increase in apoptotic cell death, emphasizing the importance of ALDH1A I in both intrinsic and acquired GEM resistance. This potentially powerful combination treatment of ALDH1A1-siRNA and GEM warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic regimen to overcome the resistance of pancreatic cancer to GEM.”
“Purpose: To compare the sparing potential of cerebral hemispheres with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for whole-ventricular irradiation (WVI) and conventional whole-brain irradiation (WBI) in the management of localized central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNSGCTs).\n\nMethods and Materials: Ten cases of patients with localized CNSGCTs and submitted to WVI by use of IMRT with or without a “boost” to the primary lesion were selected.

GC-quadrupole-MS operated in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode

GC-quadrupole-MS operated in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode proved to be most sensitive, yielding method detection limits of approximately 1 mu g kg(-1). The developed extraction/instrumental scheme was applied to samples collected in an exposure measurement field study. The samples were fortified and analyte recoveries were acceptable (75.9-125%); however, compounds

coextracted from the food matrix prevented quantitation of four of the pyrethroid analytes in two of the samples considered.”
“Objectives: To perform a systematic review of the Trichostatin A mw current literature to assess the association between integrated healthcare delivery systems and changes in cost and quality.\n\nMethods: Medline,

Embase, Cochrane Reviews, Academic Search Premier, and reference lists were used to retrieve peer-reviewed articles reporting outcomes (cost and quality) related to integrated delivery systems. A general Internet search and reference lists were used to retrieve non-peer reviewed publications meeting the same criteria. Included peer and non-peer reviewed publications were based in the United States and were published between the years 2000 and 2011.\n\nResults: A total of 21 peer-reviewed articles and 4 non-peer reviewed manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Twenty studies showed an association between increased integration in healthcare delivery and an increase in selleck inhibitor the quality of care. One study reported no changes in quality indicators associated with increased integration. None of these studies measured cost reduction directly, but used reduction in utilization of services instead. Four studies associated decreases in the utilization of services with increases in integration.\n\nConclusions:

The vast majority of studies we reviewed have shown that integrated delivery systems have positive effects on quality of care. Few studies linked use of an integrated delivery system to lower health service utilization. Only 1 study reported some small cost savings.”
“A new species of Cl-amidine troglobitic spider of the genus Tengella Dahl is described from Mexico: Tengella kalebi new species, from a limestone cave in Chiapas, Mexico. The species is described on the basis of adult male and females. This is the fifth species described for the genus Tengella, the third species described from Mexico, the first species that has notable troglomorphic modifications, and the first ecribellate Tengella species.”
“Converting carbon dioxide to useful chemicals in a selective and efficient manner remains a major challenge in renewable and sustainable energy research. Silver is an interesting electrocatalyst owing to its capability of converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide selectively at room temperature; however, the traditional polycrystalline silver electrocatalyst requires a large overpotential.

New conjugate vaccines for other pathogens currently in clinical

New conjugate vaccines for other pathogens currently in clinical trials have the potential to reduce invasive bacterial disease further, particularly in resource-poor settings.”
“There is much concern regarding the genesis of acidic leachate

by mine tailings and its potential impact on local water systems. Genesis of the leachate and its subsequent escape into the surrounding watershed is controlled by the primary distribution of facies within the tailings pond. Leachate generation and percolation is enhanced in high-sulphide coarse-grained sands, while percolation is YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor restricted in fine-grained clays formed from bentonitic slimes. The Kidd Copper deposit, located on the South Range of the Sudbury Basin, was a typical offset dike nickel deposit, where mining took place between 1970 and 1990. Using a sequence of temporally separate aerial photographs dating from 1945 to 2002, it is possible to document the initial development of the mine, its closure and the subsequent degradation of RG-7112 cost the mine tailings waste that was produced during mining activity. Since the mine’s closure, the resulting tailings deposit has

progressively oxidized, generating acid-rich leachate. Leachate can escape from the tailings via surface run-off and subsurface flow. The spatial distribution of possible flow pathways was mapped using a combination of sub-centimetre-resolution real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS and individual, high-resolution, oriented photographs of subsurface pits. Lithologic mapping information of the Kidd Copper tailings deposit can provide an insight into the distribution of local aquifers and aquitards. Subsurface lithologic mapping was achieved using a combination of sub-centimetre-resolution RTK GPS and individual, high-resolution, oriented photographs of subsurface pits. The photograph of each pit provides lithologic information of

a specific point in the tailings deposit, while the high-resolution GPS locates the individual photographs in three-dimensional (3D) geographic space. Combining these data allows AZD0530 solubility dmso us to identify continuous lithologic surfaces between pits, leading to the construction of a 3D model of the deposition of the tailings pond. Grain size and textural details extracted from the images of each lithology permit discrimination between aquifers and aquitards. The final geometric model could be used as input for estimating the hydrologic and chemical evolution of the tailings.”
“De novo glycerolipid synthesis begins with the acylation of glycerol-3 phosphate catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). In mammals, at least four GPAT isoforms have been described, differing in their cell and tissue locations and sensitivity to sulfhydryl reagents.

Artesunate and mefloquine do not appear to have a significant

Artesunate and mefloquine do not appear to have a significant learn more influence on coordination

and behaviour. Children treated with mefloquine were significantly less likely to suffer recurrent malaria infection during follow-up compared to those treated with artesunate alone (P = 0.033).\n\nConclusion: In keeping with the results of randomized controlled trials in adults, mefloquine was not associated with a decrease in specific items of neurological performance. Likewise, children treated with artesunate did not perform significantly differently to control children. This study does not exclude subtle or rare treatment CNS effects of artesunate or mefloquine. Treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria results in a significant improvement on items of neurological performance.”
“PURPOSE To identify factors that influence binocular function in anisometropic, nonstrabismic children before and after optical correction and amblyopia therapy.\n\nMETHODS This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients with nonstrabismic anisometropia. Visual acuity and responses to the 4 base-out prism

test, the Worth 4-dot test, and the TNO test were recorded after spectacle correction and every 3 months for 1 year. Factors affecting visual acuity and binocular function were analyzed using univariate and multiple stepwise regression analysis.\n\nRESULTS A total of 118 subjects were enrolled. At the end of the first year, the mean improvement in visual acuity was β-Nicotinamide mouse 2.6 +/- 2.3 lines. The percentage of patients showing a positive response to the 4(Delta) base-out prism test increased from 47% to 79%; fusion in the Worth 4-dot test, from 37% to 66%; and measurable stereopsis on TNO testing, from 59% to 80%. Better initial visual acuity and better final visual acuity were associated with better binocular function. Interocular refractive error difference was a predictor of poor binocular function in multiple regression analysis if the difference in spherical error exceeded 4 D. Patients with amblyopia showed significantly worse binocular function

compared to those with no amblyopia.\n\nCONCLUSIONS Binocular function of anisometropic children can be improved GDC-0973 price with refractive correction and amblyopia therapy. (J AAPOS 2011;15:545-550)”
“Ultrasound assessments of fetal growth have been used in other species of primates to estimate fetal age, but there are no published morphometrics for the St. Kitts green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus), a species that has been important for studies of transplantation of fetal tissue into the brain as potential treatment for degenerative disease. Previous studies with other primate species have used relatively small numbers of pregnancies, measured repeatedly, to derive regressions for predicting fetal age from ultrasound studies.

Nevertheless, a number of novel approaches can be pursued that, i

Nevertheless, a number of novel approaches can be pursued that, in our view, include optimized antigen design, in vivo-targeted dendritic cell vaccination and cancer vaccines used in combination with chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, adoptive T-cell transfer or stem cell transplantation.

This article summarizes the rationale and development BIX 01294 in vivo of these approaches for improved cancer vaccines.”
“Purpose: To assess cardiothoracic structure and function in patients with pectus excavatum compared with control subjects using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).\n\nMethod: Thirty patients with pectus excavatum deformity (23 men, 7 women, age range: 14-67 years) underwent CMR using 1.5-Tesla scanner (Siemens) and were compared to 25 healthy controls (18 men, 7 women, age range 18-50 years). The CMR protocol included cardiac cine images, pulmonary artery flow quantification, time resolved 3D contrast enhanced MR angiography (CEMRA) and high spatial resolution CEMRA. Chest wall indices including maximum transverse diameter, pectus index (PI), and chest-flatness were measured in all subjects. Left and right ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF, RVEF), ventricular

long and short dimensions (LD, SD), mid-ventricle myocardial shortening, pulmonary-systemic circulation time, and pulmonary artery flow were quantified.\n\nResults: In patients with pectus excavatum, the pectus index was 9.3 +/- 5.0 versus 2.8 +/- 0.4 in controls (P CHIR-99021 < 0.001). No significant differences between pectus excavatum patients and controls were found in LV ejection fraction,

LV myocardial shortening, pulmonary-systemic circulation time or pulmonary flow indices. In pectus excavatum, resting RV ejection fraction was reduced (53.9 +/- 9.6 versus 60.5 +/- 9.5; P = 0.013), RVSD was reduced (P < 0.05) both at end diastole and systole, RVLD was increased at end diastole (P < 0.05) reflecting geometric distortion of the RV due to sternal compression.\n\nConclusion: Depression of the sternum GW786034 ic50 in pectus excavatum patients distorts RV geometry. Resting RVEF was reduced by 6% of the control value, suggesting that these geometrical changes may influence myocardial performance. Resting LV function, pulmonary circulation times and pulmonary vascular anatomy and perfusion indices were no different to controls.”
“We investigated documents and diaries from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries to supplement the phenological data series of the flowering of Japanese cherry (Prunus jamasakura) in Kyoto, Japan, to improve and fill gaps in temperature estimates based on previously reported phenological data.