16 For example Cu acts as a reductant in the enzymes superoxide dismutase, cytochrome oxidase, lysil oxidase, dopamine hydroxylase, and several other oxidases that reduce molecular oxygen.17 In inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK addition, Zn has been shown to have an antioxidant role (s) in organelle-based systems and isolated cell-based systems in vitro.18 In support of this notion, it was shown that the administration of pharmacological doses of Zn in vivo had a protective effect against general and liver-specific prooxidants.18 Moreover vanadium, one of Calcitriol IL-2 HESA-A Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical constituents, exerts an antitumor effects
through inhibition of cellular tyrosine phosphatases and/or activation of tyrosine phosphorylases, which result in the activation of signal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transduction pathways leading to apoptosis and/or activation of tumor suppressor genes.9 Other studies suggest that carcinogenic metals such as chromium and vanadium can cause cell death through DNA damage, protein modifications, or lipid peroxidation.19 Selenium, another trace element of HESA-A, is an essential constituent of a number Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of enzymes, the antioxidant property of which have been reported.20 Selenium may cause DNA fragmentation and decreased DNA synthesis, and provides the catalytic centers for a number of seleno-enzymes.21 Given the above discussion about the role of trace elements and the findings of the present study, it
may be possible to suggest that antioxidant properties Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of HESA-A may be due to its trace elements. It has been known that high supplementation of many trace elements can help in the reductive activation of H2O2. For example, interaction of H2O2 with Cu generates more reactive species, such as hydroxyl radicals.22,23 Therefore, our findings suggest that cytotoxic effects of HESA-A in higher concentration may be due, at Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical least in part, to the catalysis of oxidative stress by Cu. Importantly, the present study shows that although HESA-A resulted in cell death at concentrations of 300 ng/ml and more, this effect may be blocked by H2O2. This finding provokes the fascinating possibility that HESA-A may be consumed for scavenging reactions, which could result in neutralization
of HESA-A and banishment of its cytotoxic effects. The finding of this study also suggest that the antioxidant capacity of HESA-A can be the result of its ability to counteract oxidative stress. Altogether, based on the findings of this study, we propose that HESA-A can dramatically scavenge ROS in vitro. Anacetrapib Therefore, further investigation should be performed to evaluate the possibility of using HESA-A for the treatment of various diseases including cancer and hypertension by modulating the generation of ROS. Conclusion The findings of this study show that HESA-A can scavenge free radicals, and contains antioxidant property. This finding highlights potential application of HESA-A to treat various diseases in which ROS generation is a major problem.