Tgfb2 expression was also downregulated in the RA-treated OFT region and was upregulated by Tbx2 in a culture system. Moreover, defective epithelial-mesenchymal transition caused by the excess RA was rescued by the addition of Tgf beta 2 in an organ culture system. These data suggest that RA signaling participates in the Tbx2 transcriptional mechanism during OFT development and that the Tbx2-Tgf beta 2 cascade is one of the key pathways involved
in inducing the TGA phenotype.”
“BACKGROUND. Lobular neoplasia (LN), encompassing atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), is often an incidental finding on core needle biopsies (CNBs) performed in instances of radiologic densities and/or calcifications. Because LN is generally considered a risk factor for breast carcinoma, the utility of subsequent Vadimezan excision is controversial.\n\nMETHODS. selleck The authors’ database yielded 98 cases of LCIS and/or ALH. Cases containing LN accompanied by a second lesion mandating excision (eg, radial scar, atypical ductal hyperplasia [ADH]) and those failing to meet strict diagnostic criteria for LN (eg, atypical cells, mitoses, single-cell necrosis) were excluded. Radiographic calcifications
were correlated with their histologic counterparts in terms of size, number, and pattern.\n\nRESULTS. Ninety-one biopsies were performed for calcifications and 7 were performed for mass lesions. The ages of the patients ranged from 35 to 82 years. Fifty-three patients were followed radiologically without excision, 42 of whom had available clinicoradiologic information. The 45 patients who under-went excision were without disease at follow-up periods ranging from I to 8 years. Of these 45 patients, SBE-β-CD cost 42 (93%) had biopsy results demonstrating only LN. The remaining 3 patients had biopsies with the following findings: ADH in 1 biopsy, residual LCIS and a separate minute focus of infiltrating lobular carcinoma (clearly an incidental finding) in the
second biopsy, and ductal carcinoma in situ admixed with LCIS in the third biopsy (a retrospective examination performed by 2 blinded breast pathologists revealed foci of atypical cells and mitoses).\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Excision of LN is unnecessary provided that: 1) careful radiographic- pathologic correlation is performed; and 2) strict histologic criteria are adhered to when making the diagnosis. Close radiologic and clinical follow-up is adequate.”
“Obesity is a world health problem that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, and some types of cancer. In postmenopausal women, it represents an important risk factor for the development of breast cancer (BC). Leptin is an adipokine that is secreted by fatty tissue, and high leptin levels are observed both in mouse models of obesity and in obese subjects.
This finding calls for a profound revision of our notion about CA-MRSA pathogenesis at the molecular level and has important implications for design of therapeutics directed against CA-MRSA.”
“Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy can potentially eradicate residual microscopic disease. Defining the optimal patient and treatment factors is essential and is particularly relevant within the context of adjuvant
vs early vs delayed postoperative radiotherapy (RT).\n\nMethods and Materials: A systematic review of all published SRT studies was performed to identify the pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) after SRT. A total of 41 studies encompassing 5597 patients satisfied the study entry criteria. Radiobiologic interpretation of biochemical tumor control was used to provide the framework for the observed relationships.\n\nResults: LY2603618 Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before SRT (P < .0001) and RT dose (P = .0052) had a significant and independent Bafilomycin A1 chemical structure association with RFS. There was an average 2.6% loss of RFS for each incremental 0.1 ng/mL PSA at the time of SRT (95% CI, similar to 2.2-3.1). With a PSA level of 0.2 ng/mL or less before SRT, the RFS approached 64%. The dose for salvage RT in the range of 60-70 Gy seemed to be on the
steep part of the sigmoidal dose-response curve, with a dose of 70 Gy achieving 54% RFS compared with only 34% for 60 Gy. There was a 2% improvement in RFS for each additional Gy (95% CI, similar to 0.9-3.2). The observed dose-response was less robust on sensitivity analysis.\n\nConclusions: This study provides Level 2a evidence for initiating SRT at the lowest possible PSA. Dose escalation is also suggested by the data.
Progressively better tumor control rates with SRT after radical prostatectomy are achieved with a lower PSA at initiation and with a higher RT dose. Early salvage RT may be an equivalent strategy to adjuvant RT. PDGFR inhibitor (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc.”
“Background: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in mediating cytokine cascade leading to coronary artery lesions (CALs) in Kawasaki disease (KM. However, our research suggested that the literature regarding IL-18 and KID is limited. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between IL-18 and CALs in patients with KD.\n\nMethods: In this prospective study of 14 children with KD (seven without and seven with CALs in the acute phase), we obtained patient measurements of a series of serum IL-18 levels in the acute, subacute, and convalescent phases. Serum IL-18 levels were measured with a Bio-Plex cytokine assay. Control samples were obtained from 18 febrile children with viral infection.\n\nResults: Compared with febrile controls, patients with acute-stage CALs [postintravenous immunoglobulin (post-IVIG) period] had a significantly higher IL-18 level (88.4 +/- 20.7 vs 56.0 +/- 35.0 pg/mL, p = 0.006).
(C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) consists of more than 20 members that can modulate cellular and immunological functions, including cell survival and the stimulation of an inflammatory response. PD98059 nmr Many TNF superfamily members display potent anticancer activity when used as recombinant proteins in vitro and in vivo. While TNF, TRAIL and FasL have already been used as payloads in antibodybased
pharmacodelivery strategies, most TNF superfamily members have not yet been investigated as antibody payloads. Here, we report the cloning, production and characterization of eight novel antibody fusion proteins based on CD4OL, FasL, TRAIL, LiGHT, VEGI, lymphotoxin alpha, lymphotoxin beta and lymphotoxin alphal /beta2. The monoclonal antibody F8 was chosen as fusion partner of proven tumor targeting performance, which recognizes the alternatively-spliced EDA domain of fibronectin, a marker of angiogenesis. A quantitative biodistribution analysis performed with radioiodinated protein preparations in tumor-bearing mice revealed that TRAIL and lymphotoxin
alphal /beta2 were able to selectively accumulate at the tumor site, while all other members of the TNF superfamily abrogated Taselisib the selective tumor targeting performance of the parental antibody or accumulated also in healthy tissues. The study indicates that even cytokines, which are closely related in terms of structure and function, may have a substantially different impact on the biodistribution and functional Selleck Anlotinib properties of the corresponding fusions with disease-homing antibodies. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Our study objective was to describe the frequency, indications, and outcomes after inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement in a population-based sample of residents of the Worcester, Massachusetts, metropolitan area who had been diagnosed as having acute venous thromboembolism
(VTE) in 1999, 2001, and 2003.\n\nMethods: A retrospective chart review of inpatient and outpatient medical records was conducted. Recorded indication(s) for IVC filter placement was determined among a subset of cases from 3 Worcester tertiary care hospitals. Three thrombosis specialists assessed the appropriateness of IVC filter placement.\n\nResults: Of 1547 greater Worcester residents with validated acute VTE and without a prior IVC filter, 203 (13.1%) had an IVC filter placed after acute VTE. Patients with an IVC filter were older, had more comorbidities, and had a higher mortality rate during 3 years of follow-up. There was unanimous agreement by panel members that the use of an IVC filter was appropriate in 51% of cases and inappropriate in 26% of cases, with no consensus in the remaining 23%.\n\nConclusions: In this community-based study, IVC filters were frequently used in the treatment of patients with acute VIE.
The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of calcaneal fractures depend on the location and type determined MCC950 supplier by the Sanders classification. With the help of measurements on lateral view radiographs like the Bohler’s angle, the angle of Gissane, the calcaneal inclination angle and the calcaneal facet height, we can predict the severity of the trauma and prognosis by assessing the collapse of the calcaneus. On computed tomography (CT), calcaneal fractures which reach into the joint space can be classified
by the Sanders classification system according to the number of fragments. In this study, we tried to determine whether calcaneal fracture severity determined by angle and facet height measurements on lateral X-ray radiographs correlate with the Sanders classification. Materials and methods Among 69 patients diagnosed with calcaneal fractures, we performed a retrospective study by analysing the Bohler’s angle, the angle of Gissane, the calcaneal inclination angle and the calcaneal facet height on digital lateral X-rays and by classifying the fractures according to the Sanders classification by CT. We compared the results of the two different imaging modalities. Results We click here found that, as the Sanders classification type became more severe from type 1 to type 4, a general decrease was observed in the Bohler’s angle, the inclination angle and the facet length,
whereas a general increase was observed for the mean values of the angle of Gissane. Conclusion These findings suggest
that measurements obtained from lateral X-rays coincide with the Sanders classification and, therefore, might indicate the prognosis.”
“Background: NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-iLDH) from Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM can potentially be used for the kinetic resolution Selleck SNX-5422 of small aliphatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, this enzyme showed rather low activity towards aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids.\n\nResults: Val-108 of L-iLDH was changed to Ala by rationally site-directed mutagenesis. The L-iLDH mutant exhibited much higher activity than wide-type L-iLDH towards L-mandelate, an aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid. Using the engineered Escherichia coli expressing the mutant L-iLDH as a biocatalyst, 40 g.L-1 of DL-mandelic acid was converted to 20.1 g.L-1 of D-mandelic acid (enantiomeric purity higher than 99.5%) and 19.3 g.L-1 of benzoylformic acid.\n\nConclusions: A new biocatalyst with high catalytic efficiency toward an unnatural substrate was constructed by rationally re-design mutagenesis. Two building block intermediates (optically pure D-mandelic acid and benzoylformic acid) were efficiently produced by the one-pot biotransformation system.”
“Objective: To assess the frequency of smoking among students in medical and non-medical colleges of Rawalpindi and to explore the differences in smoking behaviour of the two college students.\n\nStudy Design: A cross-sectional comparative study.
“Recently people are increasingly health conscious and interested in their well-being. Dietary issues are also a hot topic of research, as an ever-growing industry aims to marked specific health benefits of foods. The attention of many people is also focused selleck chemicals on the elemental composition of food, and many research groups focus on element analysis of food and fast identification of the chemical species of food elements. Also, many researchers are resolving questions of food elemental composition by the analysis of biological resource information. Many groups
use DNA sequencing methods, because DNA analysis provides a complete picture of the genetic information. DNA sequencing methods are quickly changing due to the development of new biotechnology. Lately Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques have been developed. NGS techniques have several advantages, such as increased productivity, as well as less time and cost. NGS technologies have resulted in new
sequencing methods as well as the creation of a new foundation of genome research. Our research is based on species identification within fish cake using NGS and microarray. Finally we performed a comparative study between NGS and microarray by data analysis. We identified 39 fish species within fish cake samples, we are able to accurate analysis by sequence data. NGS techniques PARP signaling are used in many applications, including genomics and epigenomics. NGS techniques are widely used for gene analysis and early diagnosis of disease within medical R&D and bio-medical areas. Our research is widely applicable to the study of various biological materials, and may be applicable to the lowcost analysis of human genes. Our research can be applied to several areas of new research LY2835219 mw using multifaceted analysis.”
“Presently the development of new therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is rapidly moving forward. Almost every week new data appear on how direct acting antivirals (DAAs) succeed or fail in clinical trials. Despite the potency of many of the DAA combinations, the effect exerted by ribavirin
(RBV) is still needed for an effective therapy in many new DAA combinations. Due to the strong antiviral effect of DAAs, it is likely that a major complementary therapeutic effect exerted by RBV is immune modulation resulting in an increased barrier to development of resistance. For HCV genotype 1 a infections elimination of pegylated interferon, is not possible in many DAA combinations without jeopardizing the results. The host immune response is thus likely to play a key role even during DAA-based therapies. Hence, T cells may recognize and eliminate viral variants with resistance to the DAAs. We herein show several examples where this may be the case, supporting the rationale of including the host response also in the new therapeutic regimens.
The study is designed to determine the differences in blood loss and transfusion requirements associated with a minimized CPB circuit vs. a standard bypass circuit. Methods: From February 2009 to August 2009, 80 patients were prospectively randomized to undergo elective CABG. Group A included 40 patients who had the minimized bypass circuit (Medtronic Resting
Heart Circuit). Group B had an equal number of patients who had the standard CPB circuit (Stockert III, SEC. BM). Laboratory parameters for hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count were measured at baseline after initiation of CPB and after bypass. Blood usage was controlled by study-specific protocol (transfusion for hemoglobin <8 g/dl). Records were kept for blood products. The chest and mediastinal A-1210477 drainage was monitored for the first 24 postoperative hours. Ventilation time, inotropic use and intensive care unit (ICU) stay was compared in both groups. Results: There were no statistical differences in terms of patients’ demographics. Statistically significant differences were seen in transfused red blood cells volume (1.47 +/-
1.13 units in group A vs. 2.05 +/- 1.19 in group B, P<0.05), fresh frozen plasma (2.5 +/- 1.62 unit vs. 3.55 +/- 2.58 units, P<0.001), platelets (1.95 +/- 2.95 units vs. 3.23 +/- 2.85), and postoperative drainage in Batimastat 24 hours (531.62 +/- 220.12 ml vs. 729 +/- 294.9 ml, P<0.05). The hematocrit was 33 +/- 5% in group A, and 27 +/- 1% in group B. There was statistical differences seen in the mean hemoglobin level which was 10.19 +/- 0.65 g/dl in group A, and 9.4 +/- 0.68 g/dl in group B. There was statistical difference in the duration of ventilation, length of ICU stay. The requirement of inotropic support was lower in group A. Conclusions: The adoption of mini-bypass significantly reduces morbidity including donor blood usage and postoperative bleeding in routine CABG patients. (C) 2011 Published
by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic selleckchem Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“Objective – The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between interleukin-17 (IL-17) level in the plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) disease severity.\n\nMethods and results – 30 patients with DCM and 20 normal adults as control were studied. IL-17 protein level in plasma, PBMC culture supernatants, and phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured with ELISA. IL-17 mRNA expression in PBMCs was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.\n\nResults showed that the IL-17 protein level in PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants or its mRNA level in the PHA-stimulated PBMC, but not in plasma or in PBMC culture supernatants, was significantly elevated in DCM patients compared with normal control subjects.
1 mN and mechanoreceptor excitability in response to electrical stimulation were increased in TNBS-treated tissue, suggesting increased
sensitivity of the mechanotransducer. Mechanoreceptor function at 30 days posttreatment was in most cases unchanged. The inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E-2 (1 mu M) activated mechanoreceptors (6 days) in conjunction with contractile activity, but capsaicin (1 mu M) failed to activate mechanoreceptors. Stattic Bradykinin (1 mu M) activated mechanoreceptors independently of contractile activity and responses to stretch were increased in the presence of bradykinin. Both capsaicin and bradykinin activated unidentified stretch-insensitive afferents independently of contractile activity. Mechanoreceptor function is modulated at 6 days posttreatment but not at 30 days, suggesting a moderate increase in mechanoreceptor sensitivity in inflamed tissue but not after recovery. Other unclassified stretch-insensitive afferents are responsive to inflammatory mediators and capsaicin and may be involved in aspects of visceral sensation.”
“Primary aldosteronism is considered
to be responsible for almost 10% of all cases of arterial hypertension. The genetic background of this common disease, however, has been elucidated only for the rare familial types, whereas in the large majority of sporadic cases, underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In an attempt to define novel genetic loci involved in the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism, a mutagenesis screen after treatment of mice with the alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea was established for HIF inhibitor the parameter aldosterone. As the detection method we used a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay that allows the measurement of aldosterone in very small murine sample volumes. Based on
this assay, we first determined the normal aldosterone values for wild-type C3HeB/FeJ mice under baseline conditions [92 +/- 6 pg/ml for females (n = 69) and 173 +/- 16 pg/ml for males (n = 55)]. Subsequently, aldosterone measurement was carried out in more than 2800 F(1) offspring of chemically mutagenized C3HeB/FeJ mice, and values were compared with aldosterone levels from untreated animals. Persistent hyperaldosteronism (defined as levels +3 SD above AZD1208 inhibitor the mean of untreated animals) upon repeated measurements was present in seven female and two male F(1) offspring. Further breeding of these founders gave rise to F(2) pedigrees from which eight lines with different patterns of inheritance of hyperaldosteronism could be established. These animals will serve for detailed phenotypic and genetic characterization in the future. Taken together, our data demonstrate the feasibility of a phenotype-driven mutagenesis screen to detect and establish mutant mouse lines with a phenotype of chronic hyperaldosteronism.
Studies in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)
and other species have implicated oxytocin in partner preferences and other social behaviors. In the present study male prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either oxytocin or the selective oxytocin Selleck Navitoclax antagonist, L-368,899, and were assessed for object preference (for small inanimate toys) 30-min after injection. Object preferences were assessed in animals tested alone or in the presence of their sibling cage mate. Saline-treated controls displayed preferences for the novel object, both when tested alone and in pairs, while oxytocin-treated voles did not demonstrate an object preference, regardless of whether tested alone or in pairs. Finally, oxytocin antagonist treated voles showed preference for the novel object, but only when tested in pairs. These data support a possible involvement of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in object preference. (C)
2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BackgroundChronic rhinosinusitis HM781-36B ic50 (CRS) is a cluster of disorders that result in sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is associated with severe and recalcitrant CRS. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of S. aureus on respiratory epithelial barrier structure and function. MethodsConditioned media from S. aureus reference strains (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC] 13565, 14458, and 25923) was applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary
human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) Selleck Cilengitide and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured to assess cell-to-cell integrity. Electron microscopy was used to gauge the ciliated area and tight junctions (TJs). Additionally, the expression of the TJ protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) was examined via immunofluorescence. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with pairwise Bonferroni-adjusted t tests. ResultsSecreted products applied to ALI cultures from S. aureus strain 13565 caused a concentration-dependent decline in electrical impedance compared to controls and reference strains 14458 and 25923 (p smaller than 0.001). Electron microscopy showed a distinct separation between adjacent cells apically, in the region of TJs. The ciliated area was not affected; however, ZO-1 expression became discontinuous in HNECs exposed to the 13565 strain’s conditioned media. ConclusionConditioned media of the S. aureus strain 13565 damages the airway epithelium by disrupting the TJs between primary HNECs grown at an ALI. These findings suggest that strain-specific S. aureus-secreted product(s) compromise epithelial barrier function, which may constitute 1 of the roles played by S. aureus in the pathophysiology of recalcitrant CRS. Further research is required to uncover the relevant molecular mechanisms.
“Purpose of review Fertility preservation in early-stage cervical cancer by total laparoscopic radical trachelectomy (TLRT) is gaining acceptance as more cases are published in the literature. The objective is to review all the literatures regarding TLRT especially over the last 12 months and to describe the technique, the operative outcomes, the oncologic outcomes and the obstetric outcomes of this procedure. Recent findings As the number of cases reported in the literature increases, the effectiveness of TLRT for treating early-stage cervical cancer continues
PP2 price to gain support. Under the enhanced vision of the laparoscopy, it is easy to preserve the ascending branches of the uterine arteries and to divide the ligaments surrounding the cervix and vagina. Since TLRT was first reported, about 140 WH-4-023 cases of TLRT have been reported. The tumour recurrence rate is 2.9%. Fifty-nine out of 140 patients attempted to conceive after TLRT, and forty-six patients succeeded. There were 17 miscarriages, 14 preterm births and 11 term births. Summary TLRT appears well tolerated and effective when performed in centres with appropriate experience
of laparoscopic techniques. Continued research and clinical trials are needed to further elucidate the equivalence or superiority of TLRT to conventional methods in terms of obstetric outcome and patients’ quality of life.”
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Materials and Methods This study was a multi-center, prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind and parallel-group trial involving 12 institutions in Korea between May 2005 and December 2005. HSP990 solubility dmso A total of 265 patients with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to either the azasetron or ondansetron group. All patients received azasetron (10 mg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg intravenously) on day land dexamethasone (4 mg orally every 12 hours) on days 2-4. The azasetron group received azasetron (10 mg orally) with placebo of ondansetron (orally every 12 hours), and the ondansetron group received ondansetron (8 mg orally every 12 hours) with placebo of azasetron (orally) on days 2-6. Results Over days 2-6, the effective ratio of complete response in the azasetron and ondansetron groups was 45% and 54.5%, respectively (95% confidence interval, -21.4 to 2.5%). Thus, the non-inferiority of azasetron compared with ondansetron in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was not proven in the present study. All treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected drug-related adverse events were reported.
(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This multicenter phase 1/2 trial Alvocidib in vivo investigated the combination of bendamustine, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in repeating 4-week cycles as treatment for relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Phase 1 established maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Phase 2 assessed overall response rate at the MTD. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 29 evaluable patients were enrolled. Median age was 63 years (range, 38-80 years). Median number of prior therapies was 3 (range, 1-6). MTD was bendamustine 75 mg/m(2) (days 1 and 2), lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21), and dexamethasone 40
mg (weekly) of a 28-day cycle. Partial response rate was 52%, with very good partial response achieved in 24%, and minimal response in an additional 24% of patients. Median follow-up was 13 months; median OS has not been reached. One-year OS is 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59%-99%). Median PFS is 6.1 months (95% CI, 3.7-9.4 months) with one-year PFS of 20% (95% CI, 6%-41%). Grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and fatigue. PF-6463922 This first phase 1/2 trial testing bendamustine, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone as treatment
of relapsed refractory MM was feasible and highly active. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01042704. (Blood. 2012; 119(20):4608-4613)”
“The role of involved field radiation therapy (IF-RT) after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has not been conclusively defined. It has been hypothesized that HDC might obviate the need of consolidative IF-RT. A retrospective matched-pair analysis of patients undergoing HDC and ASCT with BTK inhibitors library or without consolidative IF-RT has been performed. Fifteen patients treated with IF-RT after ASCT were compared with 15 patients without IF-RT, identical for
histology, stage and treatment response to HDC/ASCT as well as comparable for international prognostic index (IPI) score, age and gender. After a mean follow-up time of 65 +/- 45 months, none of the patients with consolidative IF-RT following HDC and ASCT relapsed within the involved field compared to six patients without consolidative IF-RT (IF-failure risk at 5 years: 0% vs. 40%; p < 0.005). In most of the cases, local relapse was seen in patients with bulky disease. The 5-year risk for loco-regional failure was 7% after consolidative IF-RT and 38% in patients without IF-RT (p = 0.02) while the 5-year risk for developing distant recurrences was similar in both groups (30% with IF-RT vs. 35% non-IF-RT; p = 0.7). Overall survival at 5 years was similar with 79% (IF-RT) and 65% (non-IF-RT), respectively (p = 0.2). Acute toxicity due to consolidative IF-RT was mild in most cases and severe acute toxicity was noticed in only one patient (7%).