No significant differences were
observed for 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal. Although, the latter is well known as a precursor of the esters formed via the alcohol esterification pathway, the first two have been rarely identified in fresh cut apple samples. However, both aldehydes have been previously identified in processed fruit juices, including apple juice (Burdock, 2009 and Sapers et al., 1977). Due to the presence of 2-methylbutanol at relatively high levels the presence of the former aldehydes is possibly related to the activity of enzymatic induced oxidation of alcohols. For the classification of the apple juices according to their varietal origin the log transformed, mean centred and auto-scaled data were initially Selleckchem U0126 subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) to facilitate the formation of clusters and subsequently the dataset was subjected to the supervised classification technique PLS-DA. No specific pre-treatment of the data e.g. dimensionality reduction using PCA, was Enzalutamide manufacturer carried out apart from the log transformation of data in order to avoid the over fitting problems that have previously been reported by Granitto et al. (2007). The scores and the X-loadings plots
are represented In Fig. 2 for principle component one (PC1) and principle component two (PC2), PC1 and PC2 account for the 53% of total variance of the spectral data. For the PLS-DA models, seven principle components were used which accounted for 81% of the total variability According to the PLS-DA Loperamide scores plots, very good clustering was observed for the monocultivar apple juices used in the present study, with juices extracted
from Jazz apples showing the largest distance from Granny Smith, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady. As is illustrated in the classification matrix for the calibration and validation (testing set) datasets (Table 2), juices produced from Golden Delicious, Jazz, Granny Smith, and Pink Lady apples were 100% correctly classified whilst in the case of the Braeburn extracted juices only one sample was misclassified. In both cases the total classification percentage was excellent (99.3% and 100% for internal and external validation) which indicates the robustness of the PLS-DA predictive models. Moreover, with an RMSE value ranging from 0.10 to 0.23 representing a total error of less than 5%, the predictive power of the herein constructed models is very good. A similar level of performance has previously been seen for geographical characterisation models using a PLS-DA approach constructed with the spectral fingerprint of other DIMS techniques (PTR-MS), applications include agro-industrial products with protected designation of origin such as olive oil, dry cured hams and truffle (Aprea et al., 2009, Araghipour et al., 2008 and Del Pulgar et al., 2011).