The transcribed first strand cDNA was hybridized with oligo(dA)(2

The transcribed first strand cDNA was hybridized with oligo(dA)(20) nucleotide probes spotted on optical thin-film biosensor chips. Excess first strand cDNA, single-strand RNA, and mis-matched DNA/DNA hybrids were removed by washing. The perfect-matched Napabucasin purchase DNA/DNA hybrid was detected with anti-DIG-AP (alkaline phosphatase) conjugate and then incubated with NBT/BCIP substrate for color development. The range of the color is from purplish red to blue, according to the cDNA mass deposited on chip surface. Detection of mRNA levels from Arabidopsis samples proved that this method is feasible for mRNA quantification, and has great potential for application in mRNA quantification in various organisms.”

ensembles are increasingly recognized

as a useful representation to describe fundamental relationships between protein structure, dynamics and function. Here we present an ensemble of ubiquitin in solution that is created by sampling conformational space without experimental information using “”Backrub”" motions inspired by alternative conformations observed in sub-Angstrom resolution crystal structures. Backrub-generated structures are then selected to produce an ensemble that optimizes agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs). Using this ensemble, we probe two proposed relationships between properties of protein ensembles: (i) a link between native-state dynamics and the conformational heterogeneity observed in crystal structures, and

(ii) a relation between dynamics of an individual protein Vorinostat and the conformational variability explored by its natural family. We show that the Backrub motional mechanism can simultaneously explore protein native-state dynamics measured by RDCs, encompass the conformational variability present in ubiquitin complex structures and facilitate sampling of conformational and sequence variability matching those occurring in the ubiquitin protein family. Our results thus support CX-6258 an overall relation between protein dynamics and conformational changes enabling sequence changes in evolution. More practically, the presented method can be applied to improve protein design predictions by accounting for intrinsic native-state dynamics.”
“The copolymerization of 3-thienylmethyl disulfide and benzyl disulfide has been investigated. Two monomers were synthesized in a novel facile way. Copolymer of them, especially poly (3-thienylmethyl disulfide-co-benzyl disulfide), ratio 1 : 4, namely, TcB(1:4), was easily electrocopolymerized to form a stable and higher conductive structure at a lower potential on Pt, Au, or glass carbon electrode. TcB(1:4) and TcB(4:1), especially the former, exhibit better conductivities than those of pure poly 3-thienylmethyl disulfide and poly benzyl disulfide. The copolymer has larger areas than that of monopolymer by cyclic voltammogram measurement.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“This study aim

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of short-term maintenance treatment with cabergoline and to find out minimum effective dosage of cabergoline during maintenance treatment for patients with microadenoma-related and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.

Cabergoline was administered orally

at a dose of 0.5 mg twice per week to 164 de novo hyperprolactinemic patients until serum prolactin level Cilengitide nmr normalized. After this initial treatment phase, patients started on maintenance phase for which they were previously randomized. No maintenance treatment (Group I, n = 36) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (Group II, n = 46), 0.25 mg (Group III, n = 39), 0.125 mg (Group IV, n = 43) was administered twice per week for 8 weeks as maintenance treatment. Then, maintenance phase was finalized and patients were followed up for 6 months. Mean serum prolactin levels through maintenance treatment phase and follow-up period were assessed between groups Dibutyryl-cAMP order and within groups.

Except for group I, all the groups showed a similar pattern with fast decrease of serum prolactine level during maintenance phase and slower increase during the follow-up period. Notably, the average prolactin

level was significantly lower at the last follow-up visit than at the diagnosis time in all of the groups. Stable Ruboxistaurin hydrochloride normoprolactinemia of the groups at the end of follow-up period were 47.2, 37, 48.7, and 34.9%, respectively.

The results indicate that short maintanence treatment in idiopathic and microadenoma-related hyperprolactinemia seems as effective as long maintenance treatment in the present study. But, further studies with larger study

population and longer follow-up period are needed to make a decision about early treatment withdrawal. Also, during the maintenance treatment adminisitration of medicine to patients should be tapered down to the lowest dose that will maintain prolactin levels normal.”
“Introduction: The intestinal mucosa undergoes significant atrophic changes when it is used to reconstruct the urinary tract. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of intestinal mucosa in the orthotopic neobladder on the basis of our clinical experience. Patients and Methods: Fifteen male patients with an ileal neobladder underwent endoscopic biopsy at different postoperative intervals. Results: No significant changes were observed 3 months after surgery. After 6 and 12 months, the structure of the microvilli was modified significantly. No other substantial changes after 24 months were observed. Conclusions: Progressive modifications occur in the cytoplasmic structures involved in the absorptive process. They do not seem to begin before 3 months and are almost totally completed after 1 year. Copyright (C) 2012 S.

We report the case of a 2-year-old child presenting with LCH and

We report the case of a 2-year-old child presenting with LCH and review the literature concerning this rare disease.

Presentation in our case was with a common aural polyp, refractory to medical treatment, Barasertib molecular weight which when biopsied, revealed LCH. Radiological evaluation showed multifocal disease.

A sound knowledge of the disease process in vital to the otolaryngologist, thus enabling rapid diagnosis and early treatment for a commonly fatal condition.”
“Objective: To examine the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in parotid tissues from patients with positive

serum HBV markers.

Methods: HBsAg and HBcAg were examined in parotid biopsy tissues from patients with Selleck SNX-5422 suspected parotid tumor and positive serum HBV markers by immunocytochemistry, and HBV DNA was detected in parotid tissues by PCR.

Results: Among the 22 patients with a parotid tumor, only one was pathologically confirmed as a neoplasm; all others were benign. HBsAg and HBcAg were present in parotid cells with positive rates of 45.5% (10/22) and 40.9% (9/22), respectively, with an overall positive rate of 54.5% (12/22). Of the 22 cases with serum markers of HBV infection, seven (31.8%) had both HBsAg and HBcAg in the parotid cells. HBV DNA was present in seven of the 12 samples in which hepatitis B antigen was detected (58.3%).

Conclusions: HBV in saliva might originate

from the infected salivary glands and the infectious saliva could transmit HBV. (C) 2008 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

There is no data on the use of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (SC LMWH) in cases that require thrombolysis. Objective: Having used SC LMWH with thrombolytics for more than 10 years, we aimed to review our data, share our experiences and find out whether the use of SC LMWH with thrombolytics had been effective and safe. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients who were diagnosed as acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and received either SC LMWH treatment or SC LMWH with thrombolytics in our hospital (a tertiary hospital) between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. For both treatments, the rates of mortality and complications were calculated. Results: Z-DEVD-FMK in vivo A total of 392 patients, 210 female (53.5%) and 182 male (46.5%) with an average age of 60 years, +/-16 SD, with acute PE, were included in the study. Of these patients, 107 (27.2%) were massive and 285 (72.8%) were nonmassive and were administered SC LMWH plus thrombolytics and only SC LMWH, respectively. The mortality rate was 16.8% (18 of 107) in patients who were massive and 3.5% (10 of 285) for those who were nonmassive (p < 0.001). Major hemorrhage occurred in 3.7% (n = 4) and 0.7% (n = 2) and minor hemorrhage in 12.1% (n = 13) and in 3.

Although COI1 was required for this response to ACC, other compon

Although COI1 was required for this response to ACC, other components of the Autophagy inhibitor JA signal perception pathway were not. Mutants selected for insensitivity to ethylene, including etr1, ein2, and ein3, showed greater ACC-induced root growth inhibition in the light than in the dark. However, the double mutants etr1;coi1, ein2;coi1, and ein3;coi1, and coi1 seedlings treated with silver ions to block the ethylene receptors showed almost complete unresponsiveness to ACC-induced root growth inhibition in the light. The light requirement for the COI1-mediated growth inhibition by ACC was for long photoperiods, and the ACC response was not abolished by

mutations in the known photoreceptors. SBI-0206965 solubility dmso The complementation assay indicated that SCF complex assembly was not required for COI1 function in the ACC response, in contrast to the JA response.

It is concluded that COI1 is required for the light-dependent, JA-independent, root growth inhibition by ethylene.”
“A simple route to synthesize a new type of phosphorus-containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (DOPO-POSS) in high yield, by the hydrolytic condensation of a modified silane, is reported. The starting material was a phosphorus-containing triethoxy silane (DOPO-VTES), which was synthesized by addition reaction between 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene10- oxide (DOPO) and vinyl triethoxy silane (VTES). This product was subjected to hydrolytic condensation using an HCl catalyst in methanol. The new types of phosphorus-containing POSS were obtained and characterized using H-1, C-13, Si-29-NMR, MALDI-TOF MS, XRD, DSC, and FTIR. All of these results suggested that the DOPO-POSS were amorphous mixtures of T-8, T-9(OH), and TGA curve of DOPO-POSS shows that the cage-like compound has high thermal stability. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 3383-3389, 2011″
“The release and absorption (bioavailability) of carotenoids is VX-770 research buy a prerequisite for their

nutritional impact. This can be strongly affected by the processing conditions used to prepare the food matrix that contains them. To determine the effect of processing on carotenoid bioavailability, homogenized, raw, blanched and cooked carrots were exposed to an in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion model. Final digest samples were placed onto a Caco-2 cell trans-well monolayer culture to mimic intestinal absorption. The results show that the cooked carrot puree consisting of primarily single plant cell particles had the highest release of carotenes, followed by blanched consisting primarily of plant cell clusters and raw carrot puree consisting of larger plant cell clusters. Absorption through the Caco-2 cell layer was the highest from the digesta of cooked carrot puree followed by the digesta of blanched carrot puree.

The concentrations of ZA included submicromolar ones, which are c

The concentrations of ZA included submicromolar ones, which are comparable with those found in the plasma of patients. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using MTT assay and annexin V flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Under standard culture conditions, cell growth was inhibited at 1 mu M of ZA or above, but was unaffected by lower concentrations. However, Z-DEVD-FMK when calcium concentrations were moderately increased, cell viability was decreased and apoptosis

was induced at 0.2-0.3 mu M of ZA. Moreover, a 50% reduction in serum in the hypercalcemic medium resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability at a much lower concentration (0.05 mu M).

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that clinically relevant concentrations of ZA, which alone have little effects, can be toxic to the epithelial cells depending on the conditions of extracellular calcium. Oral Diseases (2013) 19, 200-205″
“Objective: Valsartan is an angiotensin

II receptor blocker (ARB) used for treatment of hypertension. The well-known adverse effects of valsartan are dizziness, headache and cough. Valsartan-related cutaneous side effects have been reported previously in a limited DMH1 in vivo number of case reports.

Materials and methods: A 47-year-old man admitted with diffuse, itchy erythematous maculopapular eruption all over the body. He has been taking 160 mg valsartan daily for 10 days before onset of the eruption. On the third day of valsartan therapy, erythema had appeared over the face and spread throughout the whole body within a week. Histopathologic examination of the lesions showed lymphocyte exocytosis, spongiosis, necrotic keratinocytes in the epidermis, and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates including perivascular eosinophils in the dermis. The patient was diagnosed as drug reaction due to valsartan with historical, clinical and

histopathologic features.

Discussion and conclusion: Most common antihypertensive agents including diuretics, beta blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have many cutaneous side effects. However, there are a few reports about the cutaneous side effects of ARBs. Physicians should be aware of the cutaneous side effects of this commonly used agent and valsartan should be considered as a triggering factor of an exanthematous drug reactions.”
“OBJECTIVE: The hepatocellular Metabolism inhibitor carcinoma-related protein 1 (HCRP1) is a key factor in the degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. In this study, we assessed the prognostic significance of HCRP1 expression in patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC).

METHODS: HCRP1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue biopsy sections of 111 patients with locally advanced OOSCC undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses.

The results show that PEI-PHEG could effectively form positively

The results show that PEI-PHEG could effectively form positively charged nanosized particles with pDNA; the particle size was in a range of 130.2 to 173.0 nm and the zeta potential was in a range of 27.6 to 41.0 mV. PEI-PHEG exhibited much lower cytotoxicity and higher gene transfection efficiency than PEI-25K with different cell lines in vitro. An animal test was also conducted on a Lewis Lung Carcinoma

tumor model in C57/BL6 mice by using subcutaneous intratumoral administration. The results show that in vivo transfection efficiency of PEI-PHEG was improved greatly compared with that of commercial PEI-25K. These results PF-00299804 supplier demonstrate that PEI-PHEG can be a potential nonviral vector for gene delivery systems both in vitro and in vivo. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2257-2265, 2012″
“Systematic reviews represent a specific type selleck chemical of medical research in which the units of analysis are the original primary studies. They are essential tools in synthesizing available scientific information, increasing the validity of the conclusions of primary studies, and identifying

areas for future research. They are also indispensable for the practice of evidence-based medicine and the medical decisionmaking process. However, conducting high quality systematic reviews is not easy and they can sometimes be difficult to interpret. This special article presents the rationale for carrying out and interpreting systematic reviews and uses a hypothetical example to Selleckchem Nepicastat draw attention to key-points. (C) 2011 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”

for epilepsy surgery may require invasive measures such as implantation of intracranial electrodes or the Wada test. These investigations are commonly well tolerated. However, complications, including visual disturbances of various etiologies, have been reported. Here we describe two patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who displayed loss of vision in the context of presurgical assessment and in whom mutations associated with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were detected. Genetic analysis revealed in one patient the frequent mitochondrial G11778A LHON mutation in ND4. In the second patient, the mitochondrial C4640A mutation in ND2 was detected. This rare LHON mutation enhanced the sensitivity of the patient’s muscle and brain tissue to amobarbital, a known blocker of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in epilepsy. Thus, the presence of LHON mutations can be a rare cause of visual disturbances in patients with epilepsy and may have predisposed to development of epilepsy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Prior to the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), management of Fabry disease (FD) consisted of symptomatic and palliative measures.

Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians “

Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.”
“Purpose of review

This review addresses the concept that human SRT2104 manufacturer leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody specificity should be determined to HLA epitopes rather than HLA antigens.

Recent findings

HLAMatchmaker is a computer algorithm that considers small configurations of polymorphic residues referred to as eplets

as essential components of HLA epitopes. This overview describes recent developments that have increased our understanding of structural epitope antigenicity, that is, reactivity with specific antibody and immunogenicity, that is, its ability to induce an antibody response.


A determination of the repertoire of immunogenic epitopes is important for HLA compatibility testing and the identification of acceptable mismatches for sensitized patients.”
“Lung transplantation is a well-established

treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed Selleck INCB024360 for adults.”
“From the EtOH extract of the medicinal native plant, Baccharis salicifolia, two novel halimane-type diterpenoids, salicifolic acid (1)

and 5-hydroxy-6-hydro-salicifolic acid (2) together with the known compounds sakuranetin (3), apigenin (4) and scopoletin (5) were bioguided isolated against Panicum miliaceum (monocotyledonous). The structures of 1 and 2 were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The effective concentration find more for 50% inhibition of germination (ECg(50)) and the root (ECr50) and shoot (ECs50) elongations was determined for 1-5 against P. miliaceum and Raphanus sativus (dicotyledonous). Compound 2 was the most active in the inhibition of germination of P. miliaceum (ECg(50) = 1 mM), followed by 1, 5 and 3, although 1 was the most effective in regulating the growth of P. miliaceum seedlings, with a ECr50 and ECs50 values of 1.8 and 6.6 mM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 were the only samples capable of inhibiting the germination of R. sativus, while seedling development was affected by 1, 2, and 3 with different effectiveness. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory tract infection that has increased in incidence in recent years. The initial catarrhal stage presents with nonspecific symptoms of malaise, rhinorrhea, sneezing, lacrimation, and mild cough. During the paroxysmal stage, severe outbreaks of coughing often lead to the classic high-pitched whooping sound patients make when gasping for breath.

“The lack of quantitative objective measures of psychiatri

“The lack of quantitative objective measures of psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and depression

is one reason that the causative factors of psychiatric diseases remain obscure. The fact that human behavior is complex and cannot be easily tested in laboratories or reproduced in animal models further complicates our understanding of psychiatric diseases. During the past 3 decades, several magnetic resonance (MR)-based selleck chemicals tools such as MR morphometry, diffusion-tensor imaging, functional MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy have yielded findings that provide tangible evidence of the neurobiologic manifestations of psychiatric diseases. In this article, we summarize major MR findings of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as examples to illustrate the promise that MR techniques hold for not only revealing the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders but also enhancing our understanding of healthy human behavior. However, many radiologists remain skeptical about the diagnostic value of MR in psychiatric selleck kinase inhibitor disease. Many inconsistent, noncomparable reports in the literature contribute to this skepticism. The aims of this article are to (a) illustrate the most reported MR findings of major psychiatric

disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder; (b) inform radiologists of the potential

roles of MR imaging in psychiatric imaging research; and (c) discuss several confounding factors in the design and interpretation of MR imaging findings in psychiatry. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Unlike c-plane nitrides, “”nonpolar”" nitrides, e.g., those grown in the a-plane or m-plane orientation encounter anisotropic in-plane strain due to the anisotropy in the lattice and thermal mismatch with the substrate or buffer layer. Such anisotropic strain results in a distortion of the wurtzite unit cell and creates difficulty in accurate determination of lattice parameters and solid phase group-III content (x(solid)) in ternary alloys. In this paper we show that the lattice distortion is orthorhombic, and outline a relatively simple procedure Selleckchem AS1842856 for measurement of lattice parameters of nonpolar group III-nitrides epilayers from high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. We derive an approximate expression for x(solid) taking into account the anisotropic strain. We illustrate this using data for a-plane AlGaN, where we measure the lattice parameters and estimate the solid phase Al content, and also show that this method is applicable for m-plane structures as well. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. (doi:10.1063/1.3525602)”
“Tolerance to the chronic administration of opioids such as morphine reduces the utility of these drugs in pain management.

“The keratinocytes of the skin are unique in being not onl

“The keratinocytes of the skin are unique in being not only the primary source of vitamin D for the body, but in possessing both the enzymatic this website machinery to metabolize the vitamin D produced to active metabolites (in

particular 1,25(OH)(2)D) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that enables the keratinocytes to respond to the 1,25(OH)(2)D thus generated. Numerous functions of the skin are regulated by vitamin D and/or its receptor. These include inhibition of proliferation, stimulation of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier, promotion of innate immunity, regulation of the hair follicle cycle, and suppression of tumor formation. Regulation of these actions is exerted by a number of different coregulator complexes including the coactivators vitamin D receptor interacting protein (DRIP) complex also known as Mediator and the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family (of which SRC 2 and 3 are found in keratincytes), the inhibitor hairless (Hr), and beta-catenin whose impact on VDR function is complex. Different coregulators appear to be involved in different VDR regulated functions. This review will examine the various functions of vitamin D and its receptor in the skin, and explore the mechanisms by which these functions are

“Background: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is characterized by the expression of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene, a constitutively activated Selleck Z-VAD-FMK tyrosine kinase that commonly results from the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome after a t(9;22)(q34;q11) or variant rearrangement. The duplication of the Ph chromosome is a recurring abnormality acquired during disease progression, whereas intrachromosomal amplification of BCR/ABL1 is a rare phenomenon and has been associated

with imatinib therapy resistance. Archival bone marrow chromosome suspensions from 19 CML patients known to carry more than 1 copy of BCR/ABL1 and 10 CML cell lines were analyzed by fluorescent in selleckchem situ hybridization with a panel of probes from 9q34.1-qter to investigate whether they carried two identical copies of the Ph chromosome or, instead, one or both Ph contained cryptic imbalances of some regions.

Results: A duplication of the entire Ph chromosome with no further events involving the derivative 22 was found in 12 patients. In contrast, a sideline with either 1 or 2 isochromosomes of the Ph chromosome was identified in 6 patients but none of the cell lines. In one of the patients a translocation between the distal end of one arm of the isoderivative chromosome 22 and a third chromosome was revealed. 2 patients were found to carry marker structures harbouring high copy number gains of BCR/ABL1 fusion along with a variable part of 9q34 region downstream of ABL1 breakpoint, similarly to the markers present in the imatinib resistant cell line K562. We identified the following regions of amplification: 9q34.1 -> q34.2 and 9q34.1 -> qter, with a common minimum amplified region of 682 Kb.

Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights re

Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A growing

body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural Selleckchem ZD1839 DMH1 molecular weight evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.”
“The transition to flowering in Arabidopsis is characterized by the sharp and localized upregulation of APETALA1 (AP1) transcription in the newly formed floral primordia. Both the flower meristem-identity gene LEAFY (LFY) and the photoperiod pathway involving the FLOWERING

LOCUS T (FT) and FD genes contribute to this upregulation. These pathways have been proposed to act independently but their respective contributions and mode of interaction have remained elusive. To address these questions, we studied the AP1 regulatory region. Combining in vitro and in vivo approaches, we identified which of the three putative LFY binding sites present in the AP1 promoter is essential for its activation by LFY. Interestingly, we found that this site is also important for the correct photoperiodic-dependent upregulation of AP1. In contrast, a previously proposed Alvespimycin datasheet putative FD-binding site appears dispensable and unable to bind FD and we found

no evidence for FD binding to other sites in the AP1 promoter, suggesting that the FT/FD-dependent activation of AP1 might be indirect. Altogether, our data give new insight into the interaction between the FT and LFY pathways in the upregulation of AP1 transcription under long-day conditions.”
“During malignant transformation, the lipid metabolism of cells changes radically and therefore alterations in lipid metabolism are a prominent feature of solid tumors. Lipid metabolism has been investigated at the gene and protein expression levels for several decades, but recent advances in lipidomics technology have also enabled the investigation of pathways at the level of molecular lipids. This review provides an overview of the changes of global lipid metabolism (i.e., fatty acid, phospholipid, eicosanoid and sphingolipid metabolism) in breast cancer, and discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of these pathways.