45 MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITION BY A2A Ceritinib datasheet receptor ANTAGONISTS In PD, a dual mechanism that includes inhibition of MAO-B, as well as adenosine A2A receptor blockade, offers a novel therapeutic approach to prevent neuronal cell death (Figure 9, Figure 10). As detailed earlier, MAO-B plays a role in the catabolism of neurotransmitters such as DA, serotonin, and norepinephrine, leading to hydrogen peroxide formation which contributes to oxidative stress and neuronal cell death.49 Levels of MAO-B are found to be increased in older patients50–52 which has led to the rationale for the use Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of drugs such
as selegiline (deprenyl) and lazabemide,53 and the design of drugs such as ladostigil27 as described before. Figure 9 Structures of multimodal MAO-B and adenosine 2A receptor antagonists developed as anti-Parkinson drugs from caffeine. Figure 10 Dual Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical molecular mechanism of the MAO-B/A2A antagonists, CSC, and KW-6002, preventing neuron death by antioxidant effects via MAO-B inhibition and prevention of excitotoxic release of glutamate via A2A inhibition. Caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, is under some scrutiny as a potential Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical drug to counteract age-related cognitive decline. Work in this regard is supported by evidence that critical changes in adenosine-related neurotransmission occur with aging and may be counteracted by adenosine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receptor antagonists.54–56
Caffeine, in fact, has been suggested to protect against β-amyloid neurotoxicity,55 while acute treatment with caffeine and the A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 was recently found to reverse age-related olfactory deficits and memory decline in rats,56 clearly suggesting involvement of A2A, but Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not A1 receptors, in cognitive decline and possibly neurodegenerative
processes. Evidence such as the preceding, and other evidence for neuroprotection also in Parkinsonian models, led Petzer et al.57 to evaluate (E)-8-styryl-xanthinyl-derived adenosine A2A receptor antagonists for inhibition also of brain MAO-B. Included in these studies were KW-6002, a potent A2A receptor antagonist (Ki of 2.2 nM) which is undergoing else clinical trials for PD, and (E)-8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC), which has been shown to be neuroprotective in the MPTP Parkinsonian mouse model.58 All of the compounds tested in the studies by Petzer et al.57 showed MAO-B inhibition in the low micromolar to high nanomolar range, with the Ki of KW-6002 at 21 μM, and that of CSC at 0.1 μM. These results clearly suggest that the neuroprotective properties of KW-6002 and CSC may in part be due to MAO-B inhibition, in synergism with the A2A antagonism (Figure 9).59 NMDA (N-METHYL-D-ASPARTIC ACID) ANTAGONISM BY CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS The divalent calcium cation plays an important role in neuronal cell death.