74 and 1 21), and longer average timing for second surgery (14 8

74 and 1.21), and longer average timing for second surgery (14.8 months and 8 months).

Conclusions: Acquired middle ear disease, including cholesteatoma, can follow surgical removal of CC, and long term follow up of all patients is required. Factors at initial evaluation indicative of risk of AC include a significant air-bone gap, otitis media with effusion

in the contralateral ear and a smaller mastoid cavity ratio. The use of composite grafts at the time of CC surgery should be considered. Additionally, our findings suggest that the mastoid volume plays a causative role in the development of AC. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine whether salivary cortisol and electrolyte levels differ between patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SjS) and healthy individuals. (ii) To assess correlations Etomoxir inhibitor between whole-saliva cortisol AZ 628 and some clinical manifestations in patients with SjS.

METHODS: A total of 24 healthy women (mean age 49.3 +/- 9.8) served as controls (C) vis-a-vis 17 patients with SjS (mean age 55.5 +/- 15.7). Salivary cortisol concentration was determined, and sialochemistry analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Significantly lower saliva flow rates and higher salivary chloride (Cl)), potassium (K+), and Ca2+ levels were found in the SjS group. No significant

differences or correlations were found in other parameters, including sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), phosphate (PO43-), urea (U), and salivary cortisol levels.

CONCLUSION: Increased whole-salivary output of Cl and K+ in SjS may reflect release from apoptotic rests of acinar cells after secondary necrosis. Normal levels of salivary Na+, Mg2+, and PO43- argue against concentration effect, www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBF1120.html deranged tubular function or cortisol (mineralo-corticosteroid) effect as the cause for these findings. Increased salivary Ca2+ levels probably reflect leakage of plasma Ca2+ through the injured oral mucosa in SjS. In spite of disease-associated stress, salivary cortisol, a stress biomarker, was not increased, suggesting insufficient

hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and/or local consumption of cortisol by lymphocyte infiltrates. Oral Diseases (2012)18,255-259″
“Introduction: Cardiopulmonary blood flow is an important indicator of organ function. Limitations in measuring blood flow in live rodents suggest that rapid physiological changes may be overlooked. For instance, relative measurements limit imaging to whole organs or large sections without adequately visualizing vasculature. Additionally, current methods use small samples and invasive techniques that often require killing animals, limiting sampling speed, or both. A recently developed high spatial- and temporal-resolution X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system visualizes vasculature and measures blood flow in rodents.

Although withdrawing the offending drug may lead to resolution of

Although withdrawing the offending drug may lead to resolution of TMA, graft and patient outcomes are poor. Specific treatments, including plasma exchange, have not gained widespread acceptance in those with fulminant disease and new approaches to the condition are urgently needed.

We report a case of posttransplant de novo TMA presenting serially in association with ciclosporin, tacrolimus and sirolimus in a young recipient of a living donor kidney transplant. We describe a patient treated with belatacept, a novel CTLA4 Ig fusion protein, as ongoing maintenance immunosuppression to allow avoidance of conventional agents once associated with TMA. We report excellent early graft outcome,

with no adverse events using this strategy. We suggest that belatacept may have a role in this Selleck AG14699 traditionally difficult-to-treat group

of patients.”
“To enhance durability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/iodine polarizing film under humid and warm atmospheres and to identify the effects of syndiotacticity learn more on the polarizing efficiency (PE) and durability of PVA/iodine complex film, we prepared three high molecular weight (PVA)s with similar number-average degree of polymerization (P) of 4000 and with different syndiotactic diad (s-diad) contents of 53, 56, and 59%, respectively. It was found that syndiotacticity of PVA had a significant influence on the durability of PVA/iodine complex film in warm and humidity conditions (relative humidity of 80% and temperature of 50 degrees C). That is, both desorption of iodine in PVA/iodine film and transmittance of film decreased with increasing syndiotacticity of PVA. In the case of PE, the values of over 99% were obtained at each optimum conditions. The change of PE (durability) of PVA/iodine complex films having P of 4000 and s-diad contents of 56 and 59%, respectively, in warm and humidity conditions was almost zero, whereas those of PVA/iodine https://www.selleckchem.com/products/salubrinal.html film with s-diad content of 53% and with (P(n))s of 1700 and 4000 were about 60% and 50%, respectively, under same conditions. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 917-922, 2010″
“Study Design. Cross-sectional

open population based study (nested in a prospective cohort study).

Objective. To explore the association of the different individual radiographic features, including osteophytes and disc space narrowing, with self-reported low back pain (LBP). Different definitions of lumbar disc degeneration with self-reported LBP and disability were considered in a large open population sample. Furthermore, in order to disentangle the discrepancies in reported strength of the associations, we characterized the frequency of the different individual radiographic features of lumbar disc degeneration and definitions of lumbar disc degeneration, as well as their association with LBP status, by age, gender, and vertebral level.

Summary of Background Data.

54% p = 0 032) and 86% delivered

54% p = 0.032) and 86% delivered OICR-9429 beyond 34 weeks (86 vs. 46% p = 0.085). Conclusions: Arabin cerclage pessary appears to be optimal for treating women at high risk of cervical insufficiency with a cervical length of 1.5-2.5 cm, while it is an acceptable option for high risk women with cervical length

<1.5 cm.”
“Background and aims: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a member of the calcitonin family of regulatory peptides, and is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of Crohn’s disease (CD). We investigated the therapeutic effects of daikenchuto (DKT), an extracted Japanese herbal medicine, on the regulation of endogenous ADM in the gastrointestinal tract in a CD mouse model.

Methods: Colitis was induced in mice by intrarectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic

acid (TNBS); afterwards, DKT was given orally. Colonic damage was assessed on day 3 by macroscopic and microscopic observation, enzyme immunoassays of proinflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa, and serum amyloid A (SAA), a hepatic acute-phase CA4P inhibitor protein. To determine the involvement of ADM, an ADM antagonist was instilled intrarectally before DKT administration. The effect of DKT on ADM production by intestinal epithelial cells was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR.

Results: DKT significantly attenuated mucosal damage and colonic inflammatory adhesions, and inhibited elevations of SAA in plasma and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF alpha and IFN-gamma in the colon. Small and large intestinal epithelial cells produced higher levels of ADM

after DKT stimulation. A DKT-treated IEC-6 cell line also showed enhanced ADM production at protein and mRNA levels. Abolition of this effect by pretreatment with an ADM antagonist shows that DKT appears to exert its anti-colitis effect via up-regulation of endogenous ADM in the intestinal tract.

Conclusion: DKT exerts beneficial effects in a CD mouse model through endogenous release and production of ADM. Endogenous ADM may be a therapeutic target for CD. (C) 2009 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The differential diagnosis between preterm and false labour remains one of the most challenging issues in perinatal medicine. Aim: selleck To assess the prognostic importance of the selected biochemical markers in predicting preterm labour. Material and methods: 74 patients hospitalized due to threatening preterm labour. 51 women gave birth prematurely; the remaining 23 were diagnosed with false labour. We used ELISA arrays to study 13 proteins: IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, BDNF, L-Selectin, E-Selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM, VCAM-1, MIP-1 delta (MIP-1d) MIP-3 beta (MIP-3b), Eotaxin-1, Eotaxin-2, BLC. Results: An increased risk of preterm labour should be expected when the serum concentration for: IGFBP-1 > 158.83 pg/ml (sens. 0.608, sp. 0.609, p < 0.0001); MIP-1d < 27.66 pg/ml (sens. 0.627, sp. 0.627, p = 0.021); BDNF > 36.

Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period s

Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period suggested the possible effect on cell wall extensibility (hardening) even at short term resulting from the rapid accumulation of ABA. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE: To determine the normative ranges and various aspects of the relationship between the minimum corneal thicknesses (MCT) in fellow eyes and the location of the MCT in relation to the central cornea using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).

SETTING: Tertiary care ophthalmic hospital,

Chennai, India.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational trial, both eyes of consecutive healthy young subjects with a low refractive error and no clinical or topographic www.selleckchem.com/products/S31-201.html evidence of corneal disorders had bilateral pachymetric assessment with a Fourier-domain OCT platform (RTVue). The MCT, central GNS-1480 corneal thickness (CCT), and x-y coordinates of the MCT location were noted.

RESULTS: The COT and MCT followed a normal distribution with a good correlation. The difference between COT and MCT was approximately 5 mu m in

right eyes and left eyes (P<.05 for both). The difference in COT was the best predictor of the difference in MCT. The mean distance from the center (0.63 mm +/- 0.13 [SD], right eyes; 0.66 +/- 0.17 mm, left eyes) was well correlated. The MCT points in fellow eyes tended to be symmetrical along the vertical midline. The mean angular distance between mirror-superimposed MCT points was 20.54 +/- 17.6 degrees Sapitinib purchase and the mean linear distance, 0.25 +/- 0.17 mm.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings establish normative MCT pachymetry data and location using Fourier-domain OCT. The MOT and CCT points,

although symmetrical, differed significantly in location and magnitude and should be evaluated separately in normal eyes and eyes with disease.”
“Magnetic properties, electron paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance were studied in the vicinity and above ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transition of the La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 crystal. It appears that complex chemical/structural disorder inherent to manganites influences strongly on both magnetic and resonance properties of this crystal. In particular, it changes the nature of a FM-PM transition to the first- or mixed-order one and induces FM clustering in their PM state. The latter effect results in coexistence of resonance signals, and non-linearity of the PM inverse magnetic susceptibility versus temperature. This model seems to be much more realistic for description of the PM state in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 than an idealized Griffiths phase approach. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3537945]“
“Plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) show morphological and physiological disorders.

Such follow-up is essential not only as a basic right, but also a

Such follow-up is essential not only as a basic right, but also as an important reconciliatory step to regain public trust in transplants where they have been characterized by commercialism. Yet, the question, who will provide care for the commercial living donor? persists. In

the absence of public or private commitments to this care, the Coalition for Organ-Failure Solutions (COFS) conducts outreach programmes that include identifying victims of organ trafficking, assessing their consequences and arranging support services. This paper presents studies on consequences for commercial living donors (CLDs), describes the case of organ trafficking and COFS’ care provision in Egypt and discusses why follow-up care for CLDs is not an appropriate ingredient for advancing regulation AC220 order proposals but should be considered an essential component of the movement to end organ trafficking.”
“We present a comprehensive investigation of the low-field hole mobility in strained Ge and III-V (GaAs, GaSb, AZD4547 nmr InSb, and In(1-x)Ga(x)As) p-channel inversion layers with both SiO(2) and high-kappa insulators. The valence (sub)

band structure of Ge and III-V channels, relaxed and under biaxial strain (tensile and compressive) is calculated using an efficient self-consistent method based on the six-band k.p perturbation theory. The hole mobility is then computed using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism accounting for nonpolar hole-phonon scattering (acoustic and optical), surface roughness scattering, polar phonon scattering (III-Vs only), SB202190 alloy scattering (alloys only) and remote phonon scattering, accounting for multisubband

dielectric screening. As expected, we find that Ge and III-V semiconductors exhibit a mobility significantly larger than the “”universal”" Si mobility. This is true for MOS systems with either SiO(2) or high-kappa insulators, although the latter ones are found to degrade the hole mobility compared to SiO(2) due to scattering with interfacial optical phonons. In addition, III-Vs are more sensitive to the interfacial optical phonons than Ge due to the existence of the substrate polar phonons. Strain-especially biaxial tensile stress for Ge and biaxial compressive stress for III-Vs (except for GaAs) – is found to have a significant beneficial effect with both SiO(2) and HfO(2). Among strained p-channels, InSb exhibits the largest mobility enhancement. In(0.7)Ga(0.3)As also exhibits an increased hole mobility compared to Si, although the enhancement is not as large. Finally, our theoretical results are favorably compared with available experimental data for a relaxed Ge p-channel with a HfO(2) insulator. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3524569]“
“P>The growing gap between the need for and supply of transplantable organs in the U.S. led to several initiatives over the past decade.

This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent HUSLS wi

This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent HUSLS with delayed absorbable and primarily permanent suture.

Apical support was calculated as a new variable: Percent of Perfect Ratio (POP-R). This PX-478 variable measures apical support as the position of the apex in relation to vaginal length.

At 1-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in apical support between the two groups. The number of patients who suffered from suture erosion in the cohort that received permanent suture was 11 (22%).

Permanent suture, in comparison with delayed absorbable suture, for HUSLS does not offer significantly better apical support at short-term follow-up. It is also associated with a high rate of suture erosion.”
“We investigated

antimicrobial drug resistance in ocular Chlamydia trachomatis 18 months after 4 biannual community-wide distributions of antimicrobial drugs in a region of Ethiopia where ocular strains of C. trachomatis are highly endemic. We found no significant differences in susceptibilities to azithromycin and doxycycline in 6 posttreatment and 4 pretreatment samples.”
“To compare perinatal outcome of deliveries complicated by cord prolapse between cases in which bladder filling was performed in addition to supporting presenting part and cases where only support was employed.

A retrospective review of 44 deliveries complicated by prolapse occurring after admission was made. The first group included 29 patients who were rushed to a cesarean section with doctor’s hand inside the vagina pushing the presenting part. The second group of 15 patients, included women whose bladder was filled

3MA with 500 cc of normal saline in addition to manual support.

Time to delivery was similar in the first and second group (19.7 +/- A 9.46 and 21.6 +/- A 11.9, P = 0.57; respectively) as well as the mean neonatal pH values (7.28 +/- A 0.09 and 7.26 +/- A 0.07, P = 0.55; respectively). There was no significant difference in proportion of neonates with an Apgar score of less than 7 between the two arms.

The addition of bladder filling to further displace the presenting part did not improve the neonatal outcome which was not compromised BMS-777607 purchase regardless of the measures employed.”
“Cracking in rice grains caused by moisture absorption is a major concern among food processors because it has a detrimental effect on the texture. This paper aimed to simulate moisture diffusion three dimensionally (3D) using Fick’s diffusion equation, compare the results with an empirical model (Peleg’s equation), and simulate in 3D the hygroscopic swelling in rice during soaking at 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees C. This study intends to provide preparatory information in understanding the cracking mechanism during soaking. The concept was based on finite element analysis to evaluate both the moisture diffusion and hygroscopic expansion coefficients of milled rice using the reconstructed 3D model of rice geometry.

“Background: It has been previously demonstrated that a si

“Background: It has been previously demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL13 promoter region, IL13 -1055T>C (rs1800925), was associated with susceptibility to severe malaria in Thais. In the present study, fine association mapping for a cytokine gene cluster including IL4, IL5, and IL13 on chromosome LB-100 nmr 5q31 was conducted using the same malaria subjects to refine the region containing a primary variant or a haplotype

susceptible to severe malaria.

Methods: A total of 82 SNPs spanning 522 kb of the 5q31 region were analysed in 368 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (203 mild malaria and 165 severe malaria patients).

Results: Only rs1881457 located in the promoter region of IL13, which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs1800925 (r(2) = 0.73), showed a significant association with severe malaria after adjusting for multiple testing (P = 0.046 by permutation test). This SNP was in a haplotype

block spanning 97 kb (from HDAC activity assay rs2069812 to rs2240032). The detected haplotype block contained the RAD50 gene and the promoter of IL13, but not the other genes.

Conclusion: A haplotype block in which a primary polymorphism associated with severe malaria is likely to be encoded was identified in Thai malaria patients.”
“Pediatric anesthesia is no longer a small subspecialty, but an important sector where developments in the new century have brought effective and safe management to children in the perioperative period. Unfortunately, what is common daily practice in the high-income countries with all the guidelines, checklists, instruments, and dedicated pediatric anesthesiologists is often only a dream in the low- and middle-income countries where the basic anesthesia services for improving the high rate of morbidity and mortality still are lacking. Anesthesia given by nonphysicians, with no monitoring, lack of elementary supplies, poor control of infections and hemorrhage, and no water or electricity are very often the usual conditions. The World Health Organization is working hard to offer teams, basic equipments, and teaching and what is needed to offer children

of these countries the same opportunities given in the industrialized countries. Other projects such as the Lifebox Project have a similar aim. This paper outlines some of what learn more organizations are doing around the world, with different strategies all having the same target: safe pediatric anesthesia.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are expressed in higher eukaryoates and have even been found in viral genomes. They usually act as endogenous repressors of target genes by either inhibiting translation, causing mRNA degradation, or by a combination of both mechanisms. More than 850 mature miRNA sequences have been identified in humans, and although this accounts for less than 2% of human genes, it is predicted that 30% of mRNAs are targeted by miRNAs.

Complication rate was 18 9 % in the first period and 3 % in the l

Complication rate was 18.9 % in the first period and 3 % in the last. We reoperated on 9 % of patients in two early periods and none in the last. Mortality rate was 2, 0.85, 0.47 and 0 % in the four periods. Teams that are just at the beginning of their experience in bariatric surgery in order to avoid complications and deal with better long-term results.”
“OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare thoracoscopic mobilization of the oesophagus in the lateral AZD1480 order decubitus position and the semiprone position and to identify potential differences

between the two techniques.

METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained oesophagectomy database identified 150 patients undergoing combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic oesophagectomy (TLO). Of these, 90 cases underwent NVP-HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor thoracoscopic oesophageal mobilization in the left lateral decubitus position. The remaining 60 cases underwent thoracoscopic oesophageal mobilization in the semiprone position.

RESULTS: There were no differences in the clinicopathological factors and tumour characteristics between the two groups. There was no significant difference

in the blood loss, operation time, the incidence of conversion, length of hospital stay or in the number of retrieved mediastinal and abdominal nodes between the two groups. There was no significant difference with regard to the incidence of respiratory complications, anastomotic leaks, vocal cord palsy, chylothorax, delayed gastric emptying, arrhythmia and intestinal obstruction between the two groups.

CONCLUSION: The semiprone and lateral decubitus positions each have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. AG-014699 clinical trial Our initial experience confirmed that while the semiprone position is associated with superior surgical ergonomics and better exposure of the posterior mediastinum, there is no convincing evidence that semiprone thoracoscopic oesophagectomy is superior to the left lateral decubitus positioning with respect to the major surgical outcomes and oncological clearance.”

artery embolization (UAE) is still regarded by most gynaecologists as contraindicated for women with symptomatic fibroids and otherwise unexplained infertility. For such patients, myomectomy is the usual option. We performed UAE as treatment of menorrhagia in an infertile woman with multiple subserosal and intramural fibroids who had previously failed multiple myomectomy. UAE resulted in durable symptom relief and substantial reduction of the uterine and fibroid size. The patient conceived spontaneously 20 months after UAE and progressed through pregnancy uneventfully. At 38 weeks of gestation, she underwent elective cesarean section and delivered a normal, healthy, 3180-g fetus without complications.

Methods: We documented a worked example of using grounded theory

Methods: We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice.

Results: We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices.

Conclusions: By employing grounded theory methodology

rigorously, medical researchers can better Dinaciclib datasheet design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.”
“OBJECTIVE: There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise Pinometostat supplier on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments.


Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9), oral appliance (n = 9) and physical exercise (n = 7). Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements Vorinostat purchase were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392

RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive

airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.”
“Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is a common condition that affects physical, emotional, and social development. Risk factors include a family history of depression, parental conflict, poor peer relationships, deficits in coping skills, and negative thinking.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3306-3313,

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3306-3313, 2011″
“There is an increasing opportunity to perform multifunctional imaging at a variety of organ sites with relatively short examination times. Each technique yields quantitative parameters that reflect specific aspects of the underlying tumor or tissue biology. Many biomarkers have emerged that provide unique information on tumor behavior, including response to treatment. The multiparametric approach combines the information from different

functional imaging techniques; this goes beyond what can be achieved by using any single functional technique, thus allowing an improved understanding of biologic processes and of responses to therapeutic interventions. Multiparametric imaging has many potential clinical roles; it is useful for AZD3965 pharmaceutical drug development and for predicting Fer-1 therapeutic efficacy. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Synthetic scaffolds for tissue engineering coupled to stem cells represent a promising approach aiming to promote the regeneration of large defects of damaged tissues or organs. Magnetic nanocomposites formed by a biodegradable poly(caprolactone) (PCL) matrix

and superparamagnetic iron doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles at different PCL/FeHA compositions have been successfully prototyped, layer on layer, through 3D bioplotting. Magnetic measurements, mechanical testing, and imaging were carried out to calibrate both model and technological processing in the magnetized scaffold prototyping. An amount of 10% w/w of magnetic FeHA nanoparticles represents a reinforcement for PCL matrix, however, a reduction

of strain at failure is also observed. Energy loss (absorption) measurements under a radio-frequency applied magnetic field were performed in the resulting magnetic scaffolds and very promising heating properties were observed, making them very useful for potential biomedical applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3561149]“
“In this article the characterization of the thermal BIIB057 mw behavior of foamable PVC (Poly (vinyl chloride)) plastisols from 20 different plasticizers has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The interactions between the resin and the plasticizer as well as the decomposition of the azodicarbonamide (ADC)-the chemical blowing agent (CBA) used-have been analyzed. The latter process is of crucial importance for the knowledge of plasticized PVC flexible foam formation. Clear effects of the chemical nature of the plasticizers and their molecular weight (M-w) have been observed, both in the interactions (swelling and early stages of gelation) between the resin and the plasticizer, as well as in the temperature of the ADC decomposition and the shape of the DSC peak. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.