“Background: It has been previously demonstrated that a si

“Background: It has been previously demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL13 promoter region, IL13 -1055T>C (rs1800925), was associated with susceptibility to severe malaria in Thais. In the present study, fine association mapping for a cytokine gene cluster including IL4, IL5, and IL13 on chromosome LB-100 nmr 5q31 was conducted using the same malaria subjects to refine the region containing a primary variant or a haplotype

susceptible to severe malaria.

Methods: A total of 82 SNPs spanning 522 kb of the 5q31 region were analysed in 368 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (203 mild malaria and 165 severe malaria patients).

Results: Only rs1881457 located in the promoter region of IL13, which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs1800925 (r(2) = 0.73), showed a significant association with severe malaria after adjusting for multiple testing (P = 0.046 by permutation test). This SNP was in a haplotype

block spanning 97 kb (from HDAC activity assay rs2069812 to rs2240032). The detected haplotype block contained the RAD50 gene and the promoter of IL13, but not the other genes.

Conclusion: A haplotype block in which a primary polymorphism associated with severe malaria is likely to be encoded was identified in Thai malaria patients.”
“Pediatric anesthesia is no longer a small subspecialty, but an important sector where developments in the new century have brought effective and safe management to children in the perioperative period. Unfortunately, what is common daily practice in the high-income countries with all the guidelines, checklists, instruments, and dedicated pediatric anesthesiologists is often only a dream in the low- and middle-income countries where the basic anesthesia services for improving the high rate of morbidity and mortality still are lacking. Anesthesia given by nonphysicians, with no monitoring, lack of elementary supplies, poor control of infections and hemorrhage, and no water or electricity are very often the usual conditions. The World Health Organization is working hard to offer teams, basic equipments, and teaching and what is needed to offer children

of these countries the same opportunities given in the industrialized countries. Other projects such as the Lifebox Project have a similar aim. This paper outlines some of what learn more organizations are doing around the world, with different strategies all having the same target: safe pediatric anesthesia.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are expressed in higher eukaryoates and have even been found in viral genomes. They usually act as endogenous repressors of target genes by either inhibiting translation, causing mRNA degradation, or by a combination of both mechanisms. More than 850 mature miRNA sequences have been identified in humans, and although this accounts for less than 2% of human genes, it is predicted that 30% of mRNAs are targeted by miRNAs.

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