The evidence-base for

The evidence-base for palliative care within a stroke context is limited: recommendations focus exclusively on end of life, and draw mostly on research completed in cancer populations. These may only partly be transferable to a stroke context. This paper addresses this gap by investigating the integration of palliative care into the acute stroke pathway. Dealing with palliative care and end of life issues places considerable demands on the resilience of patients and family members. The role of health services is to provide appropriate and effective support helping

patients and families to cope with, and adapt to these demands, although performance may be problematic [6]. Information provision, communication Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and decision-making within a multi-disciplinary team context, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and in partnership with patients and family to determine preferences for care are key [7]. As with comparable health care systems, health policy in UK end-of-life care highlights the importance of developing generalist palliative care expertise outside of cancer services. Enabling patient choice about where Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical care is delivered is expected to lead to a greater proportion of people dying at home rather than in hospital [8]. The conceptual basis for palliative care outlined by the World Health

Organisation (WHO) [9] is broader than end of life care, and stresses implementation earlier in the disease trajectory in conjunction with other therapies intended to minimise disease progression and prolong life. It is now widely recognised that palliative care Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has a crucial role in the care received by patients and carers throughout the course of a disease process. Its supportive nature is intended to help the patient to maximise the benefits of treatment and to live as well as possible with the effects of the disease [10]. In practice, acute stroke services will be increasingly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical required to attend to palliative and end of life issues. Significant

advances have been made in the implementation of evidence of the effectiveness of rapid neurological assessment, specialist management and organised service design for people affected by stroke. GSK-3 The stroke service model has shifted from one that Oligomycin A clinical trial reflects a sense of therapeutic nihilism, historically located within gerontological medicine, to one that reflects neurological urgency and optimism. Although public health initiatives and lifestyle changes may explain a general downward trend in stroke incidence [11], the development of thrombolytic inhibitor therapy for acute stroke, effective secondary prevention strategies, and organised specialist services that integrate early rehabilitation [12,13] reduce the impact of stroke for patients, families and society. Clinical guidelines and health policy indicate that all stroke patients should be given the opportunity to benefit from acute stroke services.

75 cm, range, 3-17 cm) Table 1 Demographics and Barrett’s segmen

75 cm, range, 3-17 cm). Table 1 Demographics and Barrett’s segment characteristics A total of 104 patients underwent EMR. Ninety-five patients underwent endoscopic resection with a curative intent: focal EMR =13, complete BE endoscopic mucosal resection (CBE-EMR) =56 and EMR of any visible lesion followed by ablation of the residual Barrett’s epithelium =26. Fourteen patients were referred to surgery for the following reasons: the diagnostic EMR samples had revealed

at least submucosal invasion, risk factors for lymph node metastasis, or positive deep resection margins in 9 patients; EUS had suggested invasion in 4 patients, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and the endoscopic biopsy demonstrated IMC in one patient who opted for surgical treatment. In 49% of the 104 patients in whom an EMR was performed, the final pathologic assessment was discordant when compared with pretreatment biopsies.

Upstaging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was observed in 21.1% of patients (N=22) and down-staging occurred in 27.9% of patients (N=29). Final histopathology staging of all patients after EMR or esophagectomy is shown in Table 2 according to the Vienna Classification (10). Table 2 Final histopathological staging A total of 99 macroscopically visible lesions (VL) were recognized in 81 patients (74.3%), nine patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical had two concurrent lesions and five patients had three concurrent VL. EUS Findings Table 3 shows the information from reviewed EUS reports. TNM staging was reported in 14 of 109 EUS procedures: 4 patients were staged as T1aN0Mx and 10 as T1bNxMx. In the remaining 95 patients, the EUS report documented that there was no evidence of invasive or distant disease. Table 3 Endoscopic ultrasound reported findings Lymph nodes (LN) were identified in 16 patients. According to the previously mentioned endosonographic criteria (size Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical >10 mm, round shape, sharp borders and hypoechoic/heterogeneous aspect), a suspicion of malignancy was present in seven patients. FNA was performed in each of these 7 cases and none of the cytological exams selleck screening library revealed presence of tumor cells. EUS exams reported diffuse or focal thickening

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the esophageal wall in 68 patients. Depth of these esophageal findings was not recorded in 4 patients, involved the submucosa or beyond in 14 patients (20.6%), and were limited to the mucosal layer (superficial mucosa, deep mucosa Drug_discovery and muscularis mucosae) in 50 cases (73.5%). Of those with thickening limited to the mucosal layer, 3 cases had no dysplasia, 44 had neoplasia confined to the mucosa (5 LGD, 23 HGD and 16 IMC), and 3 cases had submucosal involvement (6%). EMR or surgery confirmed invasive neoplasia only in 3 (21.4%) among the 14 patients with diffuse or focal esophageal wall thickening involving the submucosa noted on EUS; the remaining 11 patients (78.6%) had neoplasia limited to the mucosa (9 IMC, 2 HGD) (Table 4). Table 4 EUS findings and final staging EUS reports were classified as having no findings suspicious for invasion in 90 of 109 patients (82.

54 Diurnal variation or instability of mood can thus be quite wel

54 Diurnal variation or instability of mood can thus be quite well explained by considering changing phase relationships between processes C and S. Even in healthy subjects, some phase relationships are favorable, others unfavorable. Modest but reliable mood decrements occur after

a phase delay of the sleep-wake cycle55 (reviewed in reference 5). Sudden delays (as induced by night shift or westwards flights across time zones) can even precipitate depressive symptoms in predisposed individuals with a history of affective illness.56,57 This points to a particular vulnerability of mood state when sleep is shifted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical later with respect to circadian rhythms. Such an association also appears to be valid for the circadian sleep disorder of delayed sleep phase syndrome (inappropriately late sleep timing with respect to the endogenous circadian clock). In these persons there is a high comorbidity of depressive symptoms.58 Conversely, flying Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical east may be more correlated with hypomanic or manic states.56,57 Psychopharmacology and circadian rhythms The earliest link between psychopharmacology and circadian

rhythms came from the observation that lithium slows down circadian Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical periodicity in plants.59 These effects of lithium are consistent across species, including humans,60 and are more measurable even at the level of individual SCN neurones.61 However, attempts to generalize across various classes of antidepressant drugs have not been successful7: even though the monoamine oxidase inhibitor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (MAOI) clorgyline lengthened circadian period,62 the MAOI moclobemide shortened it,63 and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had no effect.63 When considering the model (Figure 1A), it is clear that drugs could act not only on circadian period but may also change phase position or phase relationships with the sleep-wake cycle, to enhance circadian Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical amplitude or sensitivity to zeitgebers. Nintedanib side effects Evidence that imipramine and lithium modify the phase angle between the circadian temperature rhythm and the rest-activity cycle is interesting,64 as is the concept that stabilization of circadian rhythms

may be a key action of clinically effective mood-stabilizing drugs.65 In addition, sensitivity to light could be affected, as is the case with chronic clorgyline AV-951 and lithium treatments.66 Nonpharmacological therapies Sleep deprivation Well documented is the rapid, usually short-lasting improvement following total sleep deprivation and the rapid return of depressive symptoms after subsequent recovery sleep, indicating that the depressive process is strongly sleep dependent.8 Additionally, sleep deprivation needs to coincide with an early morning circadian phase for optimal antidepressant response. Partial sleep deprivation in the second half of the night or phase-advance of the sleep-wake cycle are equally efficacious (see Table I for a list of therapeutic modalities).

In addition, the development of rapid, high-throughput, inexpensi

In addition, the development of rapid, high-throughput, inexpensive, and reliable methods for mutation detection will also contribute to these discoveries. Finally, the availability of samples from a large number of parents, their family members, and controls is also another necessary component in this endeavor. The methods that exist today for the mapping of predisposing alleles (PDAs) could be summarized as follows (Figure 1). 20,21 Linkage analysis methods The parametric Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical methods with fixed mode of inheritance could still be used in the large rare families segregating a complex phenotype. Furthermore, linkage projects usually

involve small families with complex disorders, in which case all possible modes of inheritance should be tested. The nonparametric methods, also known as model-free methods, are certainly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical more suitable for complex phenotypes. These methods score the “amount” of shared alleles among affected individuals. The most widely used method is that of sibling pairs. In this, potentially interesting alleles are those that are shared in siblings in frequencies statistically different from the expected

50%. A large number of affected siblings are necessary (most studies used 100-200 such pairs) and their power to reveal linkage increases when the DNAs of their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical parents are available. There are several variations of this method, since all affected relatives could be used and nonaffected individuals could also provide valuable information. Most of the studies with sibpairs use SSR markers because ideally all four parental alleles could be recognized. For these studies, a genome-wide scan Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical usually requires approximately 300 polymorphic markers placed in the average intervals of average size 10 cM. Transmission disequilibrium test This test, which is in between linkage and association, estimates the difference between the alleles transmitted and nontransmitted to patients from their parents. The null hypothesis for Batimastat a noncontributing

locus is that there is no difference between transmitted and nontransmitted alleles. In this method, single affected individuals and their parents could be used (usually referred as trios). Most studies have used about 100 such trios. The advantage of this method is that it utilizes a powerful internal control of the nontransmitted alleles from the same population as the affected alleles. Association studies The most simple study used to determine the implication of a mutant allele to a phenotype is that of association of the polymorphic allele to the phenotype. The polymorphic allele (usually an SNP) could be PDA, or be within a very short genomic distance from the PDA.

Intervals between target and TMS pulse were measured by SOAs, spa

Intervals between target and TMS pulse were measured by SOAs, spaced in 50 msec increments from −150 to +150 msec (negative SOAs indicate forward masking, and positive SOAs indicate backward masking). Prior to target presentation, a fixation symbol (a small cross) was presented for 200 msec. The target was presented for 200 msec, with response time and inter-stimulus interval of 5000 msec. These Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical parameters were similar to those used in prior studies of affect perception (Vuilleumier et al. 2003; Holmes et al. 2005; Pourtois et al. 2005). A schematic representation of the Enzalutamide prostate cancer protocol is depicted in Figure 1. Participants were seated

1 m away from the computer monitor, and the TMS coil was positioned at the hotspot. To establish a baseline performance, a block of 25 trials without a TMS pulse was

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical administered at the beginning of the procedure. The order of stimuli administration was fully randomized across the 10 actors, four emotions, three spatial frequencies, and seven SOAs (three forward, three backward, and no TMS), with a total of 96 trials per SOA. Data analysis Analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were conducted to examine the effects of TMS, spatial frequency, and SOAs. The within-subjects design was structured as a 3 (spatial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical frequency: high vs. low vs. broad) by 7 (SOAs: −150, −100, −50, 50, 100, 150, no TMS) ANOVA. The primary interest was in the spatial frequency by SOA interaction.

Results To validate our hotspot positioning, we compared performance on letter trigram identification with TMS (at 100 msec SOA) against a no-TMS condition with the coil held over the determined hotspot. Pairwise t-test analyses revealed that participants performed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical significantly worse when a single TMS pulse was administered at the hotspot (M = 14.3 out of 30, SD = 4.44) than in the no-TMS condition (M = 25.3, SD = 2.53), t(26) = 12.3, P < 0.001. The magnitude of the difference between the means was very large (Cohen's d = 3.04). Figure 2 presents performance on the Emotion Identification Task. The repeated measures ANOVA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical revealed a significant main effect of spatial frequency (F(2,52) = 49.8, P < 0.001), SOA (F(6156) = 13.4, Carfilzomib P < 0.001), as well as a spatial frequency by SOA interaction (F(12,312) = 3.19, P < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons of the main effect of spatial frequency indicated that in the BSF condition participants performed significantly better than in either the LSF condition (P < 0.01) or the HSF condition (P < 0.01). Additionally, participants performed significantly better in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition (P < 0.05). Pairwise comparisons of the main effect of SOA revealed that participants performed significantly better in the no-TMS condition than in all other conditions (P < 0.005), confirming the significant effect of TMS masking across all spatial frequency conditions.


Twenty-two participants, genotyped for the COMT val158met polymorphism, performed verbal and spatial fluid intelligence (Gf) items, classified according to their cognitive complexity, as estimated from the loadings on g (see ref

57). These researchers were particularly interested in the analysis of the frontoparietal network related to fluid intelligence (the lateral prefrontal cortex, the presupplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex, and the intraparietal sulcus). Findings revealed a positive effect of COMT val allele load upon the BOLD Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical signal in regions belonging to this brain network when items showing distinguishable cognitive complexity were compared. This result suggests that the COMT val158met polymorphism impacts on the neural network supporting fluid intelligence. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The finding is a demonstration that the effect of kinase inhibitor Ruxolitinib single genes can impact blood oxygen level dependent signal as assessed by fMRI. Further evidence linking catecholamine modulation within the identified network may help explain individual differences in the neural response to

high levels of cognitive complexity, irrespective of the content domain (verbal or nonverbal). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical White matter The relationship jq1 between human intelligence and the integrity of white matter has been much less investigated, although this trend is changing rapidly. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is based on the diffusion of water molecules in the brain and provides information about the size, orientation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and geometry of

myelinated axons. DTI can produce measures that include fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RA), and axial diffusivity (AD), which allow for the assessment of myelin and axonal integrity (see Figure 7). Figure 7. DTI is useful for fine-grained deterministic and probabilistic tractography to capture underlying cortical connectivity patterns. This can be used for the quantitative analysis of local and global network properties using graph-theoretical approaches (eg, analysis of small-world properties).58,59 Using DTI, Schmithorst et al60 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analyzed the relationship between intelligence and white matter structure. The sample Dacomitinib comprised 47 children and adolescents (age range 5 to 18). White matter structure was studied using fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) indices. These indices were correlated with intelligence scores obtained from the Wechsler scales. These researchers found positive correlations bilaterally for FA in white matter association areas (frontal and parietooccipital areas). These correlations were thought to reflect a positive relationship between fiber organization-density and intelligence. Also using a DTI approach, Yu et al61 computed correlations between the integrity of several tracts (corpus callosum, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, optic radiation, and corticospinal tract) and intelligence.

Table 1 Information regarding patients, treatment details includ

Table 1. Information selleck chemicals llc regarding patients, treatment details including management strategy and duration of resolution with follow-up periods. Analysis of the cases A careful history and physical examination revealed that all of the patients had their regular menstrual cycle before these events of amenorrhea. There was no evidence of recent weight gain or loss and no history of eating disorder or excessive athletic activities. There was no previous contributing

medical or family history of any other possible hereditary, selleck chemical Ceritinib traumatic, surgical, metabolic, infective, organic or pathologic diseases. None of the patients were smokers, alcoholic, or diabetic. Further meticulous clinical and physical examinations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were negative for other psychiatric illnesses, surgeries, or substance abuse.

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The vital signs of all five patients were essentially within normal limits. The first four out of five patients were sexually active and were continuously on oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Hence, sudden withdrawal of oral contraceptives cannot be implicated as a likely cause of their amenorrhea. The fifth patient denied taking any OCPs. None of patients reported any hot flushes, severe headaches, or visual field disturbances. Examination of the breasts Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the first, second, and fourth patients revealed no secretions or tenderness. In the case of patients three and five, bilateral breast secretion could be expressed without any tenderness or dimpling. Skin examination of patients three and five showed mild papular acne on their faces and mild hair Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical growth on their chins. There was evidence for mild painful pustular lesion on back of the fifth patient. There were no abnormalities in their routine blood chemistry, liver function tests, or renal function tests. Routine electrolyte and urine analysis were essentially within normal limits. The first, second, and fourth patients had mild elevated serum prolactin levels without any associated physical signs and symptoms. However, the

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical third and fifth patients had substantially higher serum prolactin levels. During systemic evaluation, preliminary exclusion of potential causes of secondary amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia such as adenopathy, celiac disease, hypergonadism, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), primary ovary insufficiency, Turner syndrome, Drug_discovery Asherman’s syndrome, and insulin sensitivity studies were done by correlating their hormonal levels, past and present menarche histories and associated physical findings followed by expert opinions from respective fields. The pertinence of the above preliminary findings was further evidenced by unremarkable pelvic examinations, pelvic ultrasounds, magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) scans (focused on the brain and particularly the pituitary gland), hysterosalpingographies (HSG), and mammography tests.

, 2010a) The photoelectrochemical artifact, or Becquerel effect

, 2010a). The photoelectrochemical artifact, or Becquerel effect (Khurram and Seymour, 2013), is not of the same magnitude; it is typically on the same Linsitinib molecular weight order as the electrophysiologic signal. However, these artifacts still pose a potential problem – can they be separated from the underlying neural signal in order to resolve the LFP and single-unit responses to optical stimulation? We first set out to characterize the artifact in vivo, and then to separate the artifact from the underlying electrophysiologic signals (Figure ​Figure88). Stimulating in non-ChR2-expressing

cortical tissue, we were able to define the stereotypical artifact waveform at 10, 30, and 50 mW/mm2, which appeared in the LFP as charge/discharge depolarization/hyperpolarizations at the beginning and end of the stimulus pulses (Figure ​Figure8A8A, red). We did not note DC offsets as seen by Cardin et al. (2010), perhaps due to our particular ground and reference configurations. The electrodes also possessed an iridium oxide coating, as this had been indicated by NeuroNexus Tech (personal communication) to potentially reduce optically induced artifacts. Note that as the intensity increased, so too did the artifact amplitude, but otherwise the waveform was largely stereotyped in appearance. The immediacy, with which these artifacts appeared, as well as the steps we took to prevent

optically induced artifacts, suggests that they were actually a result of direct electrical coupling. Since these were unobserved on the TDT microwire arrays and the impedance values between the arrays were similar, we suspect that they resulted from the 21 mm ribbon cable attaching the electrode shank to the Omnetics connector. The cable could be acting as an antenna, picking up the driving current to the LED, and amplifying this

noise alongside the neurologic signal. FIGURE 8 Stimulation and recording within the hippocampus with a combined NeuroNexus array and ferrule produced a neurologic response and stimulation artifacts. The dorsal hippocampus was stimulated with a combined array and ferrule (Figure ​Figure1J1J … In the ChR2-expressing regions of the LFP of the dorsal hippocampus (Figure ​Figure8A8A, gray), a delayed LFP response to the stimulation was apparent Anacetrapib along with the artifact, peaking approximately 11 ms after stimulus onset. Note that this LFP waveform response was only observed in the ChR2-expressing hippocampus (gray) not in the cortex (red). Similarly to medial septal stimulation (Figure ​Figure44), these responses generated an increase in LFP power at the stimulation frequency (Figure ​Figure8A8A, bottom). However, the artifact is still present in the recorded signal. Of note, the artifact, based on its properties in the cortex, is of much smaller amplitude than the neural response. While it could be ignored, it would be unclear whether the changes in spectral power were resulting from the artifact, or the electrophysiological response.

2002; MacKinnon et al 2007) and as participants were asked to co

2002; MacKinnon et al. 2007) and as participants were asked to counteract a bias force toward wrist flexion, we know that a command for wrist extension (ECR contraction) existed prior to

each stimulus. Also, in support of this idea is evidence that TMS is capable of full read eliciting short-latency responses in neurons of the Alisertib supplier reticular formation in monkeys (Fisher et al. 2012). It is not clear, however, whether the activation of startle reflex circuits is responsible for the difference in LLSR amplitude between TMS of the contralateral and ipsilateral hemispheres. While there is some evidence that muscular responses to startle circuit activation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are lateralized (Grillon and Davis 1995), the preferential activation of muscles ipsilateral to the auditory stimulus is yet to be demonstrated. Taken together, our results and those of previous studies suggest that the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to a perturbed wrist is not involved in generation

or modulation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the LLSR, although there is some suggestion that it could play a role in regulating the reflex through transcallosal inhibitory effects. Neither primary motor cortex regulates the gain of the LLSRs in wrist extensor muscles Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical While TMS-induced suppression of the right motor cortex reduced the amplitude of the LLSR, it did not reduce the stability-dependent modulation of the reflex between stiff and compliant conditions. Our hypothesis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that this suppression would reduce stability-dependent modulation of the LLSR was based on previous findings demonstrating that LLSR modulation in more proximal muscles is reduced during similar TMS-induced suppression of activity in the primary motor cortex (Kimura et al. 2006; Shemmell et al. 2009). During Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical movement, motor cortex suppression appears to eliminate modulation of the LLSR that is due to anticipated arm perturbations (Kimura et al. 2006). During postural maintenance, the same motor

cortex suppression reduces LLSR modulation that occurs due to changes in environmental stability, but does not eliminate it entirely (Shemmell et al. 2009). Our current results demonstrate Drug_discovery that stability-related LLSR modulation in a more distal muscle, the ECR, is not reduced by motor cortex suppression. When considered in the context of previous findings, our results support the idea that when the goal of a task is to maintain a consistent posture, the primary motor cortex is involved in the transmission of a transcortical stretch reflex but is not the primary locus of reflex gain regulation. The nature of motor cortex involvement may change during movement, where it appears to assume more responsibility for regulating rapid corrective actions (Fromm and Evarts 1977; Maier et al. 1993), although this is not likely achieved through reflex regulation as stretch reflexes are inhibited during the corrective phase of rapid movements (Gottlieb et al. 1983).

However, in our study a group of three robots with basic

However, in our study a group of three robots with basic sensor units that are capable of detecting each other are desired to organize into a basic E formation starting from any arbitrary initial distribution.The modeling and stability analysis of the basic system considered in our study can also be extended and considered as a large interconnected system. Recently, analysis and stabilization of multiple time-delay interconnected systems is also receiving increasing attention from the scientific community [22�C26]. In practice, the interconnected systems include electric power systems, process control systems, different types of societal systems, and so on. Chen and Chiang [25] extended the T-S fuzzy control representation to the stability analysis for nonlinear interconnected systems with multiple time-delays using LMI theory and proposed a LMI-based stability criterion which can be solved numerically. In [26], a fuzzy HTS robust control design which combines H infinity control performance with T-S fuzzy control for the control of delayed nonlinear structural systems under external excitations is presented by them. The modeling error is further considered for resolution in this work. The emphasis of the work of Chen and Chiang is on the stability and stabilization of complex interconnected systems which are usually modeled as a unified formula. In contrast to many systems considered in the literature, in our study we are concerned with local interactive rule design so that an effective global behavior emerges from these rules. By comparison, the time-delay and modeling error are not immensely significant in our study. Hence, they are not taken into account in the design and stability analysis of the TFA.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 gives the problem statement including the state transition model and motion control equation of robotic sensors. The detailed design procedure of the interactive control algorithm, TFA, is presented in Section 3. In Section 4, we conduct the stability analysis of the TFA which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation. Section 5 demonstrates E formation behavior and typical formation convergences of three neighboring robotic sensors through computer simulations. Finally, conclusions and future work are stated in Section 6.2.?Problem StatementWe consider low cost homogeneous robots embodying simple and commonly available sensors. This means that the members cannot have strong capability, e.g., remote communication, and can only interact with neighbors or their environment. In fact, compared with single robotic sensors with complex structure and comprehensive function, there is less probability for a simple robotic sensor to be destroyed while performing tasks.