The difference between the conoscopic corrected 1|]# distance and the real distance is negligible here, as they are both nearly equal but for a constant additive factor.The resulting pattern has a radial symmetry, so all the information is contained in one radius. Therefore, it is possible to calculate the original distance to the light emitting point from the fundamental frequency of one of the lines of the signal, with the appropriate calibration. Punctual conoscopic devices use a linescan CCD to acquire this signal.2.2. Linear Conoscopic HolographyA further improvement is the linear Conoscopic Holography [3, 4], where two crystals, with a specific orientation one with respect to the other, build up the conoscopic module.
In this configuration, the wavefront reflected by the inspected surface is duplicated by the conoscope, and the resulting wavefronts emerge with a lateral shear between them.
Despite their discovery over a century ago, primary non-motile cilia were thought to be vestigial organelles inherited from an ancestor whose cells had motile flagella, and that the flagella or cilia now served no purpose. In particular, although the presence of cilia has been observed in various cell types in mammalian cells Brefeldin_A [1,2], the function of cilia continued to elude researchers for many decades. Most mammalian cells posses a solitary, non-motile cilium known as primary cilium which projects from the apical surface of polarized and differentiated cells to the internal lumen of the tissues.
Historically, cilia have been studied for their motile function in fluid and cell movement .
Functions of motile cilia have been studied extensively in lung epithelial cells, sperm tails, and other systems. In addition, the building blocks of motile cilia have also been studied intensively in green Anacetrapib algae . Most recent works have further shifted to look at primary, non-motile cilia in mammalian systems . Non-motile cilia have acquired much attention over the last few years, because ciliary defects contribute to various human diseases such as cystic kidney disease [6,7].Like the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, cilia function as specialized cellular organelles. All cilia are formed during interphase of the cell cycle from an ancestral basal body or elder centriole of the centrosome . The centrosome is composed of the two centrioles that nucleate the bipolar formation of the mitotic spindle during mitosis and nucleate the ciliary axoneme (Figure 1).