circannual rhythms). The (neuro-) endocrine processes underlying these life-cycle events are studied by physiologists and need to be linked to genes that Selleck NU7441 are explored
by molecular geneticists. In order to fully understand variation in phenology, we need to integrate these different perspectives, in particular by combining evolutionary and mechanistic approaches. We use avian research to characterize different perspectives and to highlight integration that has already been achieved. Building on this work, we outline a route towards uniting the different disciplines in a single framework, which may be used to better understand and, more importantly, to forecast climate change impacts on phenology.”
“In the promising field of regenerative medicine, human perinatal
stem cells are of great interest as potential stem cells with clinical applications. Perinatal stem cells could be isolated from normally discarded human placentae, which are an ideal cell source in terms of availability, the fewer number of ethical concerns, less DNA damage, and so on. Numerous studies have demonstrated that some of the placenta-derived VS-6063 cells possess stem cell characteristics like pluripotent differentiation ability, particularly in amniotic epithelial (AE) cells. Term human amniotic epithelium contains a relatively large number of stem cell marker-positive cells as an adult stem cell source. In this review, we introduce a model theory of why so many AE cells possess stem cell characteristics. We also describe previous work concerning the therapeutic applications and discuss the pluripotency CT99021 of the AE cells and potential pitfalls for amnion-derived stem cell research.”
“Background: The clinical features and electrophysiological characteristics of patients with focal left atrial tachycardias (LATs) are not well characterized. This study reports the experience of a single center in catheter mapping and radiofrequency ablation of focal LAT not associated with prior atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, including in cardiac sarcoidosis and transplant patients.
Methods: Patients with focal LAT without a history
of AF ablation were included in this retrospective analysis.
Results: A total of 24 focal LATs were documented in 20 patients. Two patients were subsequently diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis. Two patients were status post a thoracic transplant. The mean initial cycle length of the focal LATs was 347.4 +/- 96.2 ms (range 190-510 ms). Patients with a pulmonary vein (PV) ostium focus (n = 6) demonstrated a shorter cycle length than patients with other LA foci (259.2 +/- 56.4 ms vs 371.9 +/- 91.1 ms, P = 0.02), as well as a trend for a history of AF (67% vs 21%, P = NS). Catheter ablation was immediately successful for 19 of 22 focal LATs.
Conclusions: Focal LATs not associated with prior AF ablation can originate in a variety of LA locations and clinical settings.