Binding was partly dependent on CS/DS as digesting the chains res

Binding was partly dependent on CS/DS as digesting the chains resulted in relatively decreased cytoadherence. It also showed significantly increased binding to chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate.

Thus, combined milieu of high glucose and high cholesterol can have more deleterious consequences than either of them independently. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: VX-661 purchase This study aimed at exploring the effect of preoperative risk factors and hospital characteristics oil costs of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) hospitalizations.\n\nBackground: The considerable investment in hospital-based cardiac programs has not been Coupled with comparable efforts to explore cost drivers of associated procedures.\n\nMethods: Data Sources included (a) New York State’s Cardiac Surgery Reporting System, (b) New York State’s Statewide Planning and Research

Cooperative System dataset, (c) American Hospital Association dataset, and (d) Medicare Hospital Cost Report Public Use files and wage index files. The study population comprised New York state residents Who underwent an isolated CABG procedure in a New York State hospital and were discharged in 2003. The outcome measure MAPK inhibitor was inpatient costs. Independent variables included patient (demographic and clinical) and hospital characteristics.\n\nResults: The total number of cases was 12,016. Findings revealed that selected demographic characteristics, including older age, female gender, and being black, were associated with higher costs. Several clinical characteristics were found to affect CABG discharge Costs Such as lower ejection fraction, the duration between CABG admission and the Occurrence of myocardial infarction, number of diseased vessels, previous open heart operations, and a number of comorbidities. Furthermore, larger hospitals were associated with higher CABG discharge costs, while costs significantly decreased with higher CABG volume.\n\nConclusions: Hospitals should explore ways to address

patient (patient management) and hospital (case volume), when possible, associated with higher CABG discharge costs in its efforts to contain costs.”
“Background. Concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a common procedure. Whether the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) influences outcomes of AVR plus CABG is unknown.\n\nMethods. All AVR plus CABG cases from 2008 to 2010 were extracted from the California CABG Outcomes Reporting Program database. Patients with left main coronary artery stenosis greater than 50% or at least three diseased vessels were defined as having extensive CAD, and patients with one or two diseased coronary vessels were defined as having less extensive CAD. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for predicting major postoperative complications and 30-day mortality.

ResultsWhite LN-ESRD patients who were transplanted later (versus

ResultsWhite LN-ESRD patients who were transplanted later (versus at smaller than 3 months receiving dialysis) were at increased risk of graft failure (3-12 months: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-1.63; 12-24 months: adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.92-2.06; 24-36 months: adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.92-1.97; and bigger than 36 months: adjusted HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-2.99). However, no such association was seen among African American recipients (3-12 months: adjusted HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.79-1.45; 12-24 months: adjusted HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.64-1.60; 24-36 months: adjusted HR

0.78, 95% CI 0.51-1.18; and bigger than 36 GDC-0973 purchase months: adjusted HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.13). ConclusionWhile future studies are needed to examine the potential confounding effect of clinically recognized SLE activity on the observed associations, these results suggest that longer wait times to transplant may be associated with equivalent or worse, not better, graft outcomes among LN-ESRD patients.”
“Purpose: To evaluate amniotic membrane (AM) tissue morphology and corneal epithelial healing in human eyes after amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT), using laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM).\n\nPatients and methods: Twenty eyes of 20 patients, treated with single

layer epithelial side up AMT for chemical burns in the acute stage (n = 8) and persistent corneal epithelial defect (n = 12) were studied by serial IVCM MK5108 ic50 post-AMT until complete re-epithelisation. Changes in morphology of transplanted amniotic tissue ABT-263 nmr and healing corneal epithelium were noted. AM and corneal epithelial cell density was calculated using image-analysis software.\n\nResults: IVCM enabled visualisation of transplanted AM and of regenerating epithelial cells under the AM. The mean AM epithelial cell density, 1 day after transplant, was 4613 (SD 380) cells/mm(2). The average AM epithelial thickness was 35 (4) mu m, while the AM stromal thickness was 116 (31) mu m. The amniotic stroma appeared to be composed

of a superficial dense fibrous layer and a deeper loose reticular network of fibres. Amniotic epithelium was lost within 15 days of transplant, and complete re-epithelisation of the corneal surface was achieved between 1 and 4 weeks.\n\nConclusions: Laser scanning IVCM is a useful method for evaluating AM tissue morphology, degradation and corneal epithelial healing after AMT for different clinical indications. When the amniotic membrane acts as a patch, that is epithelial cells migrate under rather than over the membrane, the membrane disintegrates and is lost.”
“Fully bioabsorbable scaffolds (BRS) are a novel approach that provides transient vessel support with drug delivery capability without the long-term limitations of the metallic drug-eluting stents (DES), such as permanent caging with or without malapposition.

We show that PKD1, a kinase that previously has been described as

We show that PKD1, a kinase that previously has been described as a suppressor of tumor cell invasion, is an interface for both FDA-approved drugs, since the additive effects observed are due to DMTI-mediated re-expression and suramin-induced activation of PKD1. Our data reveal a mechanism of how a combination treatment with non-toxic doses of suramin and DMTIs may be of therapeutic benefit for patients with aggressive, multi-drug resistant breast cancer.”
“Background: Previous studies have reported that various Kinase Inhibitor Library non-life-threatening life events could cause psychological distress symptoms like posttraumatic stress disorder

in adults and adolescents. We examined whether patients with treatment-refractory depression (TRD) perceive their experiences of life events, of which they think as triggering the onset of depression, as more serious psychological distress symptoms than remitted or mildly symptomatic patients with major depressive disorder (MOD). Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design. We recruited 78 outpatients consisting 0131 TRD patients, 31 remitted MOD patients, and 16 mildly symptomatic MOD patients. We adopted the Impact

of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of psychological distress symptoms associated with the events that patients thought as triggering the onset of depression. We also evaluated clinical features and variables including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HORS). Results: The mean [+/- SD] score of the IES-R in patients with TRD (46.7 [15.11) was significantly higher than in remitted (10.3 19.91, p smaller than 0.001) or mildly symptomatic (31.3 [17.7], p smaller than AZD1208 ic50 0.001) patients with MOD. The HORS scores showed significant correlations with those

of the IES-R among all patients (r=0.811). Limitations: This study was not able to exclude the possibility that the severity of psychological distress symptoms associated with onset-related events could influence the difficult therapeutic course in patients with TRD clue to the cross-sectional design. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that patients with TRD perceive their onset-related life events as serious psychological distress symptoms. This result contributes to understanding the pathophysiology of TRD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Uremia markedly accelerates atherogenesis, but the pathogenesis remains to be elucidated and effective anti-atherogenic treatments are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between accelerated atherosclerosis (AS) and the balance of regulatory/effector T cells (Treg/Teff) in uremic apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice, and the effect of pioglitazone on uremic AS and possible mechanisms.\n\nMethods and results: Uremia was induced surgically in 8-week-old male apoE-/- mice. Two weeks after induction of uremia, the mice were randomized to receive pioglitazone (daily oral gavage with 20 mg/kg) or vehicle.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “

(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD, EC is JNK-IN-8 manufacturer a homotetrameric thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of chiral 2-hydroxyketones accepting a broad range of aldehydes as substrates. In this study the synthesis of 2-hydroxypropiophenone (2-HPP) from benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde was catalyzed by three BFD variants namely BFD F464I, BFD A460I and BFD A460I-F464I. This paper reports the effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 290 MPa when the reactions were carried out at

different benzaldehyde concentrations (5-40 mM) as well as at different pH values (7.0-8.5). Acetaldehyde concentration was fixed at 400 mM in all biotransformations. Reactions performed at high benzaldehyde concentrations and at high hydrostatic pressures showed an increase in (R)-2-HPP formation catalyzed by all BFD variants. MAPK Inhibitor Library For BFD A460I-F464I we observed an increase in the ee of (R)-2-HPP up to 80%, whereas at atmospheric conditions this variant synthesizes (R)-2-HPP with an ee of only 50%. Alkaline conditions (up to pH

8.5) and high hydrostatic pressures resulted in an increase of (R)-2-HPP synthesis, especially in the case of BFD A460I and BFD F464I. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Persistent diarrhea is commonly observed after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A few cases of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-induced duodenal villous atrophy (DVA) have been previously reported in kidney-transplant patients with chronic diarrhea. Herein, we report on the incidence and characteristics of DVA in SOT patients with chronic diarrhea. One hundred thirty-two SOT patients with chronic diarrhea underwent an oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and a duodenal

biopsy after classical causes of diarrhea have been ruled out. DVA was diagnosed in 21 patients (15.9%). It was attributed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) therapy in 18 patients (85.7%) (MMF [n = 14] and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium [n = 4]). MPA withdrawal or dose reduction resulted in diarrhea cessation. The incidence of DVA was significantly higher in patients with chronic diarrhea receiving MPA compared to those who did not (24.6% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.003). DVA was attributed MEK162 inhibitor to a Giardia lamblia parasitic infection in two patients (9.5%) and the remaining case was attributed to azathioprine. In these three patients, diarrhea ceased after metronidazole therapy or azathioprine dose reduction. In conclusion, DVA is a frequent cause of chronic diarrhea in SOT recipients. MPA therapy is the most frequent cause of DVA. An OGD should be proposed to all transplant recipients who present with persistent diarrhea.”
“Background: Obesity is a serious health problem that leads to serious physical and psychological problems. The methods used in treating obesity include diet and behavioral changes, pharmacotherapy, and surgery.

Worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety w

Worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was measured with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Depressive symptoms were found in 32.7% of the participants and 44.4% had STAI scores indicating anxiety symptoms of clinical significance. The mean score for total

CWS was 26 (SD = 12.3). It is noteworthy that the most important worries in the study sample were ”the possibility of something going wrong with the baby”, “giving birth”, and “financial problems”. The prevalence of antenatal anxiety and depression PLK inhibitor identified in this study is of concern. Screening for antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms with validated instruments is crucial.”
“The patient was a 14-year-old male diagnosed with acute

disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with acute onset of multifocal central nervous system symptoms. He showed increased cerebrospinal fluid cell counts and high myelin basic protein levels, which responded well to steroid pulse therapy. Spinal MRI showed a centrally-located long spinal cord lesion (LCL) involving 17 vertebral bodies from BMS-754807 ic50 C2 to T11 that later expanded into the white matter, and lesions on the ventral side of the medulla. The cause of LCL has been reported to be heterogeneous. In this case, LCL is considered to be associated with ADEM, an acute autoimmune response to myelin, and vascular inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (C) 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The title compound, [Ag(NO3)(C20H30S2)](n), Selleckchem AS1842856 was synthesized by the reaction of silver nitrate and 1,4-bis(cyclohexylthiomethyl) benzene (bctmb) in acetonitrile. The coordination polymer exhibits a two-dimensional

layer structure. The layers are wave-like and parallel to the crystallographic ac plane; Ag-I ions are linked by the bctmb ligands and nitrate anions along the crystallographic a and c directions, respectively. In addition, the crystal structure is stabilized by C-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds.”
“Aims Recurrent severe hypoglycaemia in a patient with diabetes is strongly associated with a crash risk while driving. To help ensure road safety, recent changes were made to European Union driving regulations for patients with diabetes. These included the recommendation that more than one episode of severe hypoglycaemia within 12months would lead to the loss of a driving licence. This study has assessed the impact of this regulation if applied to patients who participated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Methods All patients in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial were assumed to be drivers. Repeated hypoglycaemic episodes within a year were determined during the mean 6.5years of the study.

A total of 313 children, 53 7% male, showing ESp on the EEG and w

A total of 313 children, 53.7% male, showing ESp on the EEG and with an average initial age of 6.82 (range from 2 to 14 years) were followed for a mean period of 35.7 months. In the initial evaluation, 118 (37.7%) had a history of nonfebrile epileptic seizures (ES). Epileptiform activity (EA) was observed on the EEG in 61% and showed a significantly greater occurrence in children with ES than in those without (P=.000). Of the 118 showing seizures from the start, 53 (44.9%) continued to have seizures; of the 195 without seizures at the start, only 13 (6.67%) developed them. Thus, only 66 (21.1%) children showed ES during the follow-up. ESp disappeared in 237 (75.7%) cases and EA in 221

(70.6%). In the children with ES, it was found that the presence of EA on the first EEG did not ARS-1620 supplier indicate continuation of the ES throughout the remaining period, while the 13 children who presented their first ES in a later period showed a greater occurrence of EA on the initial EEG than those who did not develop ES (P=.001). Evidence of

WH-4-023 Angiogenesis inhibitor brain injury was observed in 43 (13.7%) children and was associated with a greater continuity of the ES during the study (P=.018). ESp, EA, and ES tend to disappear, suggesting an age-dependent phenomenon. The finding of ESp, particularly in the absence of any evidence of brain injury, indicates a low association with ES and benign outcome.”
“Purpose We report a case of Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. Case Report A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal CHIR98014 clinical trial changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found

in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. Conclusions This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen.”
“Most conceptuses derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mice undergo developmental arrest as a result of embryonic or extraembryonic defects. Even when fetuses survive to term, prominent placental overgrowth or placentomegaly is often present, indicating that SCNT affects the development of trophoblast cell lineage.

“The membranolytic activity of silica particles toward red

“The membranolytic activity of silica particles toward red blood cells (RBCs) has been known for a long time and is sometimes associated with silica pathogenicity. However, the molecular mechanism and the reasons why hemolysis differs according to the silica form are still obscure. A panel of 15 crystalline (pure and commercial) and amorphous (pyrogenic, precipitated from aqueous solutions, vitreous) silica samples differing in size, origin, morphology, and surface chemical composition were selected and

specifically prepared. Silica particles were grouped into six groups to compare their potential in disrupting RBC membranes so that one single property differed in each group, while other features were constant. Free radical production and crystallinity were not strict determinants of hemolytic activity. Particle curvature and morphology modulated the hemolytic effect, but silanols and siloxane bridges at the surface were the main actors. Hemolysis was unrelated to the β-Nicotinamide chemical structure overall concentration of silanols as fully rehydrated surfaces (such as

those obtained from aqueous solution) were inert, and one pyrogenic silica also lost its membranolytic potential upon progressive dehydration. Overall results are consistent with a model whereby hemolysis is determined by a defined surface distribution of dissociated/undissociated silanols and siloxane groups strongly interacting with specific epitopes on the RBC membrane.”
“The in vitro activity of doripenem was evaluated against a recent collection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (201 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae [153 Escherichia coli and 48 Klebsiella pneumoniae] and 201 P. aeruginosa). Comparator agents included amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem. Both doripenem and meropenem inhibited 100% of the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a parts per thousand currency sign0.5 A mu g/mL. For these isolates, Nutlin-3a the MIC(90) of doripenem (0.12 A mu g/mL) was 4-fold lower than that of imipenem (0.5 A mu g/mL). Against P. aeruginosa, the MIC(90) of doripenem and meropenem was 2 A mu g/mL, 4-fold lower than that of imipenem (8 A mu g/mL). At an MIC of a parts per thousand currency sign2 A mu g/mL, doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem inhibited 90.5%, 89.6%, and 82.1% of P. aeruginosa isolates, respectively. Doripenem maintained activity against imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates of P. aeruginosa; at an MIC of a parts per thousand currency sign4 A mu g/mL, it inhibited 15 of the 25 isolates with MICs for imipenem of > 4 A mu g/mL. Doripenem is active against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa isolates.

In the present study, we examined the impact of diethylhexyl

In the present study, we examined the impact of diethylhexyl

see more phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the proliferation of androgen-sensitive human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and related events. The results showed that both compounds were able to inhibit cell cycle progression in a dose-dependent manner. However, only DEHP was found to weakly reduce androgen receptor (AR) protein levels after long-term exposure, while only DBP partially inhibited expression of the prostate-specific antigen (KLK3) gene, a model AR transcriptional target. This indicated that inhibition of cell proliferation was likely independent of any AR modulations. Both phthalates induced suppression of cell proliferation, but none of them affected the levels of markers associated with neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NED) in

LNCaP cells. Taken together, the presented data indicate that phthalates may exert long-term negative effects on the proliferation of prostate epithelial cells derived from the carcinoma model, which are, nevertheless, largely independent of the modulation of AR expression/activity, and which do not alter further processes associated XMU-MP-1 mw with NED.”
“The kidney plays a major role in glucose homeostasis because of its role in gluconeogenesis and the glomerular filtration and reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubules. Approximately 180 g of glucose is filtered daily in the glomeruli of a normal healthy adult. Typically, all of this glucose is reabsorbed with <1% being excreted in the urine. The transport of glucose from the tubule into the tubular epithelial cells is accomplished by

sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs). SGLTs encompass a family of membrane proteins that are responsible for the transport of glucose, amino acids, vitamins, ions and osmolytes across the brush-border membrane of proximal renal tubules as well as the intestinal epithelium. SGLT2 is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter expressed chiefly in the kidney. It accounts for approximately 90% of glucose reabsorption in the kidney and has thus become the focus of a great deal of interest in the field of diabetes mellitus.\n\nSGLT2 inhibitors block the reabsorption of filtered Pevonedistat manufacturer glucose leading to glucosuria. This mechanism of action holds potential promise for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in terms of improvements in glycaemic control. In addition, the glucosuria associated with SGLT2 inhibition is associated with caloric loss, thus providing a potential benefit of weight loss. Dapagliflozin is the SGLT2 inhibitor with the most clinical data available to date, with other SGLT2 inhibitors currently in the developmental pipeline. Dapagliflozin has demonstrated sustained, dose-dependent glucosuria over 24 hours with once-daily dosing in clinical trials.

6%) from cancer Self-rated and physician-rated health both predi

6%) from cancer. Self-rated and physician-rated health both predicted independently all-cause mortality (hazard ratios [HR] for worst vs. best health category: 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-2.33, and 1.77; 95% CI: 1.36-2.29; respectively; P-values of < 0.005). When self-rated and physician-rated health were discordant, mortality risk was highest when physicians had a less favourable view on the health status selleck chemical than the participant. Self-rated health predicted independently cancer mortality (HR 2.41), whereas physician-rated health cardiovascular

mortality (HR 2.13).\n\nConclusion: Self-rated and physician-rated health status predicted both all-cause mortality, and showed a differential pattern for cancer and cardiovascular diseases mortality.”
“Artificial intelligence techniques

are important tools for modelling and optimizing the solid-state fermentation (SSF) factors. The performance of fermentation processes is affected by numerous factors, including temperature, moisture content, agitation, inoculum level, carbon and nitrogen sources, etc. In this paper, the identification of non-linear relationship between fermentation factors and targeted objectives is performed, first, using the learning capabilities of a neural GS-9973 nmr network (NN). Then, this approach is coupled with various artificial intelligence techniques to optimize the fermentation process, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The effectiveness of different approaches is compared with the classical statistical techniques, such as Response Surface Methodology (RSM), that are increasingly being used. This paper presents the first attempt to adapt these approaches on the solid state fermentation process. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Particularly, we show that this approach leads

to a significant improvement on the fermentation process performance. Biotechnol. & selleck inhibitor Biotechnol. Eq. 2012, 26(6), 3443-3450″
“Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L(-1) and 200 mg L(-1) Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA(1) and GA(4) contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants.

RESULTS: Ongoing pregnancy rate, the primary outcome measure, was

RESULTS: Ongoing pregnancy rate, the primary outcome measure, was significantly higher in the antagonist group compared with the agonist group (12.2 versus 4.4%, P < 0.048; difference 7.8%, 95% CI: 0.2 to 14.0). Estradiol levels on the day of hCG administration were lower in the antagonist protocol [median (interquartile range): 572 (325-839) versus 727 (439-1029) pg/ml, P = 0.018]. Clinical and biochemical pregnancy rates,

fertilization selleck inhibitor and implantation rates, as well as the number of oocytes retrieved, the number of mature oocytes present, the stimulation period and the gonadotrophin dosage were not significantly different between the two groups compared. CONCLUSIONS:The flexible GnRH antagonist protocol

selleck products is associated with significantly higher ongoing pregnancy rates compared with the flare-up GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders (; NCT00417066).”
“Topological invariants are conventionally known to be responsible for protection of extended states against disorder. A prominent example is the presence of topologically protected extended states in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems as well as on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators. Here we introduce a new concept that is distinct from such cases-the topological protection of bound states against hybridization. This situation Ilomastat is shown to be realizable in a two-dimensional quantum Hall insulator put on a three-dimensional trivial insulator. In such a configuration, there exist topologically protected bound states, localized along the normal direction of two-dimensional plane, in spite of hybridization with the continuum of extended states. The one-dimensional edge states are also localized along the same direction as long as their energies are within the band gap. This finding demonstrates the dual role of topological invariants, as they can also protect bound states against hybridization in a continuum.”
“Objectives: To determine whether the degree of

enhancement of pancreatic adenocarcinoma visualized on arterial phase gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates with the histopathological tumor grade.\n\nMethods: Thirty-nine patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma had MRI within 14 days before tumor resection. Gadolinium-chelate-enhanced (Gd) 3-dimensional gradient echo images were acquired including the arterial phase. Tumor imaging patterns on the arterial phase images were classified for low, moderate, or high degree of enhancement and compared against conventional histological grading.\n\nResults: Based on histological grading, there were 12 poorly differentiated, 2 poorly to moderately differentiated, 22 moderately differentiated, and 3 well-differentiated adenocarcinomas.