The tumor specimens were grouped according to whether or not the gastric cancer patients had tumor metastasis (whatever lymph node metastasis,
distant metastasis or organ metastasis). And the percentage of the specimens which was positive (grade – or + according to immunochemical staining) or negative (grade ++ or +++ according to immunochemical staining) for CAFs’ prevalence was analyzed (a). And the immunochemical staining of α-SMA was shown in normal gastric tissue, gastric cancer tissue without metastasis and gastric cancer tissue with metastasis (b). And we also analyzed the correlation between the mRNA level of FAP, SDF-1 and TGF-β1 and the gastric cancer stage. The level of these proteins were scored as described in the methods and the tumor www.selleckchem.com/products/dorsomorphin-2hcl.html tissue samples were determined to be positive if the score is equal to or larger than 8. It was found that the positive ARN-509 chemical structure percentage is much
high in large tumors (>5 cm, 32/38) than that in small tumors (≤5 cm, 20/62) (p < 0.05). And the positive percentage in tumor samples with TNM stage IA, IB, II, IIIA, IIIB and IV are 33.3% (5/15), 42.9%(3/7), 52.6%(10/19), 60.9%(14/23), 73.3%(11/15) and 76.2(16/21), respectively, showing that the prevalence of CAFs is closely correlated with the gastric cancer stages (p < 0.01). These results strongly suggested that CAFs' prevalence could help to establish the gastric cancer stage and could be used as a marker for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Discussion Recent studies in molecular and cellular biology have shown that tumor growth and metastasis are not determined by cancer cells alone but also by a variety of stromal cells [14, 15]. The Chlormezanone stroma actively provides continuous support
to carcinoma cells throughout the different pathophysiological processes that modulate tumor progression. Fibroblasts are an important component of tumor stroma, which have received increased attention because of their participation in tumor development, including growth, invasion and metastasis, such as in prostate cancer [16, 17] or breast cancer [18, 19]. It has also been demonstrated in a gastric cancer mice model that activated fibroblasts promote tumor angiogenesis , and it is consistent with out results that activated fibroblasts were accumulated in human gastric cancer tissues. The term fibroblast encompasses a number of stromal cells with a broadly similar phenotype. Most tumors incorporate an obvious biologically active, fibroblastic cell type known variously as reactive fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, or simply tumor-associated fibroblasts. Smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) is the most common marker used to identify CAFs, while its expression can also be found in smooth muscle cells and myoepithelial cells . So other markers should be used in combination with α-SMA to identify CAFs.