The tumor specimens were grouped according to whether or not the

The tumor specimens were grouped according to whether or not the gastric cancer patients had tumor metastasis (whatever lymph node metastasis,

distant metastasis or organ metastasis). And the percentage of the specimens which was positive (grade – or + according to immunochemical staining) or negative (grade ++ or +++ according to immunochemical staining) for CAFs’ prevalence was analyzed (a). And the immunochemical staining of α-SMA was shown in normal gastric tissue, gastric cancer tissue without metastasis and gastric cancer tissue with metastasis (b). And we also analyzed the correlation between the mRNA level of FAP, SDF-1 and TGF-β1 and the gastric cancer stage. The level of these proteins were scored as described in the methods and the tumor tissue samples were determined to be positive if the score is equal to or larger than 8. It was found that the positive ARN-509 chemical structure percentage is much

high in large tumors (>5 cm, 32/38) than that in small tumors (≤5 cm, 20/62) (p < 0.05). And the positive percentage in tumor samples with TNM stage IA, IB, II, IIIA, IIIB and IV are 33.3% (5/15), 42.9%(3/7), 52.6%(10/19), 60.9%(14/23), 73.3%(11/15) and 76.2(16/21), respectively, showing that the prevalence of CAFs is closely correlated with the gastric cancer stages (p < 0.01). These results strongly suggested that CAFs' prevalence could help to establish the gastric cancer stage and could be used as a marker for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Discussion Recent studies in molecular and cellular biology have shown that tumor growth and metastasis are not determined by cancer cells alone but also by a variety of stromal cells [14, 15]. The Chlormezanone stroma actively provides continuous support

to carcinoma cells throughout the different pathophysiological processes that modulate tumor progression. Fibroblasts are an important component of tumor stroma, which have received increased attention because of their participation in tumor development, including growth, invasion and metastasis, such as in prostate cancer [16, 17] or breast cancer [18, 19]. It has also been demonstrated in a gastric cancer mice model that activated fibroblasts promote tumor angiogenesis [20], and it is consistent with out results that activated fibroblasts were accumulated in human gastric cancer tissues. The term fibroblast encompasses a number of stromal cells with a broadly similar phenotype. Most tumors incorporate an obvious biologically active, fibroblastic cell type known variously as reactive fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, or simply tumor-associated fibroblasts. Smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) is the most common marker used to identify CAFs, while its expression can also be found in smooth muscle cells and myoepithelial cells [21]. So other markers should be used in combination with α-SMA to identify CAFs.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 1996, 16:15–21 17 Krasowska A, Łukas

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 1996, 16:15–21. 17. Krasowska A, Łukaszewicz M: Isolation, identification of Arctic microorganisms, and their proteolytic and lipolytic activity (Izolacja, identyfikacja oraz aktywność proteolityczna i lipolityczna mikroorganizmów arktycznych). [http://​www.​aqua.​ar.​wroc.​pl/​acta/​pl/​full/​3/​2011/​0000302011000100​00010000500014.​pdf] Acta Sci Pol Biotech 2011, 10:3–12. 18. Krasowska A, Dąbrowska B, Łukaszewicz M: Isolation and characterization of microorganisms from Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. J Biotechnol 2007, 131:S240.CrossRef 19. Janek T, Łukaszewicz M, Rezanka T, Krasowska

A: Isolation and characterization of two new lipopeptide biosurfactants LY2090314 ic50 produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5 isolated from water from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. learn more Bioresource Technol 2010, 101:6118–6123.CrossRef 20. Kim KM, Lee JY, Kim CK, Kang JS: Isolation and characterization of surfactin produced by Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2. Arch Pharm Res 2009, 32:711–715.PubMedCrossRef 21. Gillum AM, Tsay EY, Kirsch DR: Isolation of the Candida albicans gene for orotidine-50-phosphate decarboxylase by complementation of S. cerevisiae ura3 and E. coli pyrF mutations.

Mol Gen Genet 1984, 198:179–182.PubMedCrossRef 22. Laycock M, Hildebrand PD, Thibault P, Walter JA, Wright JLC: Viscosin, a potent peptidolipid biosurfactant and phytopathogenic mediator produced by a pectolytic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens . J Agr Food Chem 1991, 39:483–489.CrossRef 23. Youssef NH, Duncan KE, McInerney MJ: Importance of 3-hydroxy fatty acid composition of lipopeptides for biosurfactant activity. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005,

71:7690–7695.PubMedCrossRef 24. Peng F, Wang Y, Sun F, Liu Z, Lai Q, Shao Z: A novel lipopepitide produced by a Pacific Ocean deep-sea bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. TW53. J Appl Microbiol 2008, 105:698–705.PubMedCrossRef 25. Peypoux F, Bonmatin Bupivacaine JM, Wallach J: Recent trends in the biochemistry of surfactin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1999, 51:553–563.PubMedCrossRef 26. Besson F, Peypoux F, Michel G, Delcambe L: Characterization of iturin A in antibiotics from various strains of Bacillus subtilis . J Antibiot 1976, 29:1043–1049.PubMedCrossRef 27. Grangemard I, Wallach J, Maget-Dana R, Peypoux F: Lichenysin: a more efficient cation chelator than surfactin. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2001, 90:199–210.PubMedCrossRef 28. Landman D, Georgescu C, Martin DA, Quale J: Polymyxins revisited. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008, 21:449–465.PubMedCrossRef 29. De Araujo LV, Abreu F, Lins U, de Melo Santa Anna LM, Nitschke M, D Guimarăes Freire DM: Rhamnolipid and surfactin inhibit Listeria monocytogenes adhesion. Food Research International 2011, 44:481–488.CrossRef 30.

Notably, male ACE2 mutant (ACE2−/y) mice with an increase in the

Notably, male ACE2 mutant (ACE2−/y) mice with an increase in the renal tissue Ang II level develop glomerulosclerosis [41]. Sensitive

indicators of ROS production, lipid peroxidation products and the glomerulosclerosis score were markedly enhanced in those mice while ARB prevented these increases, which strongly supports the notion that ACE2 plays a role in Ang II-induced glomerular injury. More recently, a similar relationship between ACE2 and ACE expression in diseased glomeruli was reported even in patients with IgAN selleck chemicals llc [43]. New approach for the analysis of Ang peptides generated by the glomerular RAS pathway Since RAS is a far more complex and dynamic system than was originally recognized, assays that are more selective, sensitive, and rapid than conventional radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of peptide products are needed for the identification of RAS components and peptide-enzymatic cascades in RAS. The emergence of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) allows us to clarify Ang metabolism with more specificity and ease than with

previous methods. Recently, Velez et al. examined the metabolism of Ang I in freshly isolated intact rat glomeruli using MALDI-TOF-MS [10, 44, 45]. They showed that there is prominent glomerular conversion of Ang I–Ang (2–10) and Ang (1–7), mediated by AP-A and NEP, respectively,

and suspected that the formation of these alternative Ang peptides may be critical for counterbalancing the local actions of Ang II within glomeruli. GSK126 manufacturer MTMR9 They then examined the contribution of POD or GEC to Ang metabolism in glomerulus using MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with cell culture methods [45, 46]. They demonstrated that POD expressed a functional intrinsic RAS characterized by AGT, NEP, AP-A, ACE2, and renin activities, which predominantly lead to Ang (1–7) and Ang (1–9) formation, as well as Ang II degradation [45]. In contrast, GEC exhibited prominent ACE activity leading to Ang II, with the production of less Ang (1–7) and thus a lower degradative ability of Ang II [46], suggesting that injury to specific cell types in the glomeruli may lead to distinct effects on the glomerular RAS balance. In addition, many studies have reported that MC also express a functional intrinsic RAS characterized by AGT, prorenin, cathepsin B (a potential enzyme involved in renin activation), chymase, ACE, and ACE2, which primarily generates Ang II and very small amounts of Ang (1–7) and Ang (1–9) [45, 47, 48, 49]. Taken together, these findings suggest that variations in glomerular cell injury and the relative abundance of Ang I metabolites such as Ang II, Ang (1–7), Ang (1–9) and Ang (2–10) within glomeruli determine the net autocrine or paracrine effects of these Ang peptides on glomerular cells.

TAT, PF1 + 2 and FVIII increased in the immediate post operative

TAT, PF1 + 2 and FVIII increased in the immediate post operative period and gradually returned to near baseline levels. The peri-operative activation of coagulation also caused an increased of peri-operative PAI-1 levels, a potent inhibitor VRT752271 of fibrinolysis. The activation state persists during surgery and is independent of the anaesthetic agents used. These results confirm previous studies performed on patients undergoing

major abdominal surgery for colon-rectal cancer [27], hepatic cancer resection [28], pneumonectomy for lung cancer [29]. No studies had previously examined whether different intra-operative anaesthetic regimens (TIVA-TCI vs. BAL) could cause different intra-operative profiles of highly sensitive and specific coagulation and fibrinolysis markers in prostate cancer patients undergoing a highly standardized type of surgery (LRP or RALP). In this context, the results of our study seem to provide useful information in reducing the peri-operative trombo-embolic risk and improving the prognosis CYT387 price of cancer patients undergoing LRP and RALP. Even though cancer

patients who undergo surgery are targeted for thromboprophylaxis, widespread use of prophylaxis could determine the risk of intra-operative bleeding [23,24] and a detrimental effect rather than a benefit. This problem is evident in prostate cancer patients undergoing surgery, especially in view of the increasingly frequent use of the robotic technique that has resulted ifenprodil in a significant reduction of surgical complications [30,31]. Although the American and European guidelines recommend prophylaxis in patients with prostate cancer [18-22], its use is currently widely debated given the different incidence of TED observed by several authors. A multicentric analysis of a number of institutions from both Europe and the United States

showed a very low incidence of TED (about 0.5%) [32]. A similar incidence (0.9%) was reported from the California Cancer Registry [4]. Conversely, Osborne et al. [14] consider patients with prostate cancer at intermediate risk of TED similar to patients with uterine, rectal, colon and liver cancer. Prostatectomy significantly increases the incidence of TED up to 2.9% and 3.9%, as reported by Hu JC et al. [17], irrespective of the surgical approach. Tewari et al. [33] in a recent meta-analysis on 400 original research articles on surgical treatment for prostate cancer and its complications reported that the rate of deep vein thrombosis was significantly lowest for RALP (0.3%), intermediate for LRP (0.5%) and highest for open surgery (1.0%). More recently, Van Hemelrijck et al. [16] analysed thromboembolic events following prostatectomy in about 45.000 men collected in the Prostate Cancer Database Sweden.

Physica Status Solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters 2012, 6:53–5

Physica Status Solidi (RRL) – Rapid Research Letters 2012, 6:53–55.CrossRef 45. Wehling TO, Novoselov KS, Morozov SV, Vdovin EE, Katsnelson MI, Geim AK, Lichtenstein AI: Molecular doping of graphene. Nano Lett 2007, 8:173–177.CrossRef 46. Ihm K, Lim JT, Lee K-J, Kwon JW, Kang T-H, Chung S, Bae S, Kim JH, Hong BH, Yeom GY: Number AG-881 of graphene layers as a modulator of the open-circuit voltage of graphene-based solar cell. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 97:032113–032113.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions RK carried

out all the experiments in this study, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript. MB was involved in SiO2 deposition. SR, SM, SS, and PJ jointly fabricated the p-n Si solar cell. BRM supervised the overall study, analyzed the results, and finalized the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Nowadays, about 30% of the cost of a wafer-based silicon solar cell is due to the silicon material itself. Thus, researchers are aiming at reducing the consumption of silicon while keeping the cell efficiency high. One of these attempts is employing a layer-transfer process (LTP) where an active silicon layer is epitaxially grown using chemical vapor

deposition (CVD) on porous silicon (PSi), which acts as the detachment find more layer and as the epitaxy-seed layer [1, 2]. Transferring the epitaxial layer (silicon “epi-foils”) to foreign low-cost substrates, while the parent substrate can be reused, would allow for cost-effective solar cells. In this PSi-based LTP, a double-PSi layer, with a low-porosity layer (LPL) on top of a high-porosity layer (HPL) is formed on a monocrystalline wafer by electrochemical etching and is sintered in hydrogen ambient, as schematically illustrated by the process Baf-A1 concentration flow in Figure 1. The HPL reorganizes into an extended void which serves as mechanically

weak layer (i.e., the detachment layer) allowing the separation of the epi-foil from the parent substrate after the epitaxial growth. In addition, the LPL acts as “the seed layer” for the homo-epitaxial growth in which the columnar pores reorganize into large cavities while closing and smoothening the surface of the substrate. In most LTP schemes, a foreign substrate is used to provide mechanical support to the epi-foils during and after detachment. The efficiency of the silicon solar cells is influenced by the quality of the epitaxial growth, which is determined by the quality of the seed layer template. The PSi layer can influence the quality of the epitaxial growth in many ways. Firstly, since the LPL surface is the template where the epitaxial growth starts, the morphology and the topography of the LPL will affect the epitaxial growth process.

05) Serum creatine A significant difference among the three grou

05). Serum creatine A significant difference among the three groups was observed indicating significantly higher serum creatine concentrations in the CRT group when compared to PLA (p = 0.007) and CEE (p = 0.005) (Figure 1). Also, significant differences for CRT occurred at days

6 (p = 0.028), 27 (p = 0.014), and 48 (p = 0.032). Muscle creatine Figure 1 Changes in serum creatine concentrations with data expressed as mean (± SD). † indicates significantly higher serum creatine concentrations in CRT when YH25448 research buy compared to PLA (p = 0.007) and CEE (p = 0.005). * indicates significant differences for CRT occurred at days 6 (p = 0.028), 27 (p = 0.014), and 48 (p = 0.032). A significant difference among groups for total muscle creatine indicated that

total muscle creatine content was significantly higher in the CRT (p = 0.026) and CEE (p = 0.041) groups when compared to the PLA group. Significant differences over the course of the four testing sessions were observed indicating that the CRT group underwent increases in total muscle creatine at day 6 (p = 0.041) and 27 (p= 0.036), whereas CEE only increased at day 27 (p = 0.043) (Figure 2). Figure 2 Changes in muscle total creatine with data expressed as mean (± SD). † indicates a significant difference among groups where the PLA group was significantly less than the CRT (p = 0.026) and check details CEE (p = 0.041) groups. * indicates significant differences over the course of the four testing sessions where CRT increased at day 6 (p = 0.041) and 27 (p= 0.036), and CEE only increased

at day 27 (p = 0.043). Serum creatinine A significant difference over the course of the four testing selleck screening library sessions (p = 0.001) and significant difference between groups (p = 0.001) was observed for serum creatinine. Serum creatinine was greater in the CEE group compared to the PLA (p = 0.001) and CRT (p = 0.001) groups. Further analysis revealed significant elevations in serum creatinine with the CEE group that occurred days 6 (p = 0.007), 27 (p = 0.005), and 48 (p = 0.005) (Figure 3). Figure 3 Changes in serum creatinine with data expressed as mean (± SD). † indicates that CEE was greater than PLA (p = 0.001) and CRT (p = 0.001). * indicates significant elevations in CEE at days 6 (p = 0.007), 27 (p = 0.005), and 48 (p = 0.005). Body composition There was no significant difference between groups for total body mass (p = 0.173). However, a significant difference over the course of the four testing sessions was observed demonstrating that total body mass significantly increased at days 6, 27, and 48 days 6 (p = 0.015), 27 (p = 0.006), and 48 (p = 0.027) (Table 3). A significant difference between groups (p = 0.043) was observed for fat mass demonstrating that the CRT group had significantly (p = 0.034) more fat mass than the CEE group.

If either is effective at reducing inflammation associated with m

If either is effective at reducing inflammation associated with muscle damage, then it may be reasonable to assume that IL-6 mediated inflammation and DOMS would be reduced in the EPA group. However, the findings from the present

study do not support this hypothesis. DOMS post exercise is associated with RFGC, [7] muscle soreness [3] and elevated levels of cytokines [13]. The protocol used in the present study was designed selleck chemical to initiate an IL-6 mediated inflammatory response, muscle soreness and a RFGC, to demonstrate DOMS was achieved. Participants’ pain was assessed 48 h post resistance exercise, and in accordance with previous research [3, 20] muscle soreness did not alter between B1 and B2, however it did increase from B2 by 64% and 50% to S1 and S3 respectively (See Figure 2D). Participant’s maximal EPZ015666 purchase isometric force ability decreased 48 h post resistance exercise by ~14% between B1 and S1, and B2 and S1. The reduction in participant’s ability to generate force highlighted in the present study post resistance exercise

is in accordance with previous research [2, 16]. This reduction in participant’s ability to generate force was matched by an increase in pain, which is in agreement with the work of Graven-Nielsen et al. [7]. The initial force reducing capacity of the muscles was evident in all three forms of contractions; however both forms of isokinetic contractions (concentric and eccentric) reported an increase between B1 and S3. A possible explanation for poor development in muscle force generating capacity for isometric contractions may have been due to the difference between the angles achieved when exercising compared to those used when strength assessments

were carried out. When assessing muscle force generating capacity for isometric contractions the angle was set at 65°, however when performing resistance exercise this angle may have only been briefly achieved during the leg extension/flexion exercise (See Figure 1A and 1B). Morrissey et al. [32] reported an increase in motor unit activation at specified angles when working isometrically, therefore if the legs were not trained specifically at 65° degrees then there will be no increase in force generating capacity at that specific Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II angle. There was an increase in IL-6 48 h post resistance exercise of 26% and 43% between B1 and S1 and B1 and S3 respectively for grouped data. In addition there were also increases in IL-6 of 22% and 40% for grouped data between B2 and S1, and B2 and S3 respectively. These alterations in IL-6 are consistent with previous research demonstrating increases in IL-6 following an exercise protocol aimed at maximising DOMS (See Figure 3) [9, 20]. The above support the assertion that the protocol used in the present study was effective at initiating DOMS.

Even though EPEC was present in about 8% of children with diarrho

Even though EPEC was present in about 8% of children with diarrhoea, its prevalence in control children was similar. Thus, the overall burden of diarrhoeal disease due to DEC in Kuwaiti children appeared to be low. This is in contrast to the high burden of diseases due to DEC in countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf Region. We speculate that VE-822 mouse a number of factors

might influence this low prevalence in Kuwait. These include a protected water supply, an arid climate, inspection of imported food items to prevent contaminated food items reaching the population, and better housing, sanitation and nutrition of population because of high disposable income. There are some limitations in our study. We have studied only severe cases of diarrhoea that required hospitalisation. Therefore, the role of diarrhoeagenic E. coli in mild diarrhoeas could not be ascertained. Ideally, we should have studied equal numbers of cases and matched controls. We were able to recruit only a small number of control children because we found it difficult to persuade guardians of children to allow us to collect stool samples from children. Even with a comparatively small number of control children, we could not find a statistical association

of DEC with diarrhea as many of these control children excreted DEC. Therefore, even with a larger sample size of control children, the conclusion would have been the same. In most of the diarrhoeal PAK5 children, other pathogens would have been the cause of diarrhoea. Traditional bacterial and parasitic diarrhoeal pathogens are investigated by routine diagnostic laboratories in the two hospitals on a need basis, but not systematically. Our interest was to evaluate the aetiolo gical role of DEC only. Had we found a significant role for DEC, this would have necessitated ruling out the contribution of copathogens. To our knowledge, ours is the first report of the aetiological role of DEC from the Arabian Gulf region. Conclusion This case-control

study has shown that DEC are not significantly associated with acute diarrhoea in hospitalised children in Kuwait. Acknowledgements This study was supported by Kuwait University grants (numbers MK01/04 and CM01/04). We thank hospital staff for assistance with collection of stool samples. Thomas Cheasty, Health Protection Agency, Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Colindale, England, the United Kingdom, helped with the serotyping of E. coli strains. References 1. The World Factbook[https://​www.​cia.​gov/​library/​publications/​the-world-factbook/​print/​ku.​html] 2. Feb 2008: international comparison program[http://​www.​finfacts.​com/​biz10/​globalworldincom​epercapita.​htm] 3. Sethi SK, Khuffash FA, Al-Nakib W: Microbial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Kuwait. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989, 8:593–597.CrossRefPubMed 4. Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HLT: Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

1 9 Detection of protein expression in IGF-1R and PDGFA via weste

1.9 Detection of protein expression in IGF-1R and PDGFA via western blotting Cell protein samples in each experimental group were collected by western cell lysate. Collected protein samples were 1) expanded by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; 2) blotted onto polyvinylidene fluoride membrane by electroporation; 3) hatched at room temperature for 2 h with anti-IGF-1R (1:500) antibody, anti-PDGFA (1:500) antibody, or membrane; 4) treated with horseradish peroxidase and enzyme-labeled secondary antibody; 5) subjected to color reaction

via the enhanced chemiluminescence hypersensitive chemiluminescence method. The optical band concentration was analyzed and recorded with AZD1480 the Gel Analysis System. Detection of relative protein strength was represented in the ratio of the optical protein band concentration to the internal gene β-actin. 1.10 Detection of protein expression S63845 molecular weight in xenografted tumor tissue in nude mice by immunohistochemistry (Staining Horseradish Proxidase) Xenografted tumors from sacrificed nude mice were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. The appearance of brown granules in the cytoplasm was considered positive for protein. The integrated optical concentration of slides in each group was analyzed via Image-Pro Plus 6.0. 2. Statistical analysis All data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 and represented as ± s. A completely randomly designed analysis of variance was used to compare

the data among groups, and differences of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. 3. Results 3.1 Growth, morphology, and appraisal of breast carcinoma cells The cultured breast carcinoma cells showed stable proliferation after 2 weeks by adhering to the wall in long shuttle shapes, while some interstitial cells showed in polygon stretching growth, sometimes the cell fragments and dross covered there. Differential adhesion was used to remove the interstitial cells and fibroblasts. Breast carcinoma cells were those whose cell viability reached 90% as detected by trypan blue stain and that achieved positive results for cytoplasmic glycoprotein in immunocytochemical

staining (Figure 1). Figure 1 Positive expression of primary cultured cell CA15-3 (400×). 3.2 Proliferation of breast carcinoma cells Primary breast carcinoma cells were treated with UTI, TXT, or UTI+TXT for 24-72 h, and the results showed Montelukast Sodium that UTI, TXT, and UTI+TXT significantly inhibited the proliferation of breast carcinoma cells. These inhibitory effects were statistically significant compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the inhibitory effect was enhanced after extended treatment, which reveals a time-dependent effect (Figure 2a). UTI, TXT, and UTI+TXT also significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and the inhibitory effect was enhanced after extended treatment (P < 0.01). The strength of the inhibitory effects of the treatments was UTI+TXT > TXT > UTI.

Baarn: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures; 2009 48 Korpi A, P

Baarn: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures; 2009. 48. Korpi A, Pasanen A-L, Pasanen P, Kalliokoski P: Microbial growth and metabolism in house dust. Int Biodeter Biodegr 1997, 40:19–27.CrossRef 49. Scott JA, Straus NA, Wong B: Heteroduplex DNA fingerprinting of Penicillium brevicompactum from house dust. In Bioaerosols, fungi and mycotoxins: Health effects, assessment, prevention and control. Edited by: Johanning

E. Albany: Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Clinic; 1999:335–342. 50. Noss I, Wouters IM, Visser M, Heederik DJ, Thorne PS, Brunekreef B, Doekes G: Evaluation of a low-cost electrostatic dust fall collector for indoor air endotoxin exposure assessment. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008, 74:5621–7.PubMedCrossRef find more 51. Pietarinen VM, Rintala H, Hyvärinen A, Lignell U, Kärkkäinen P, Nevalainen A: Quantitative PCR analysis of fungi and bacteria in building materials and comparison to culture-based analysis. J Environ Monit 2008, 10:655–663.PubMedCrossRef 52. Samson RA, Houbraken JS, Summerbell RC, Flannigan B, Miller JD: Chapter 5: Common

and important species of fungi and actinomycetes in indoor environments. In Microorganisms in home and indoor work environments: diversity, health impacts, investigation and control. Edited by: Flannigan B, Samson RA, Miller JD. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:102–127. 53. Collado

J, Platas G, Paulus B, Bills GF: High-throughput culturing of fungi from plant Cell Cycle inhibitor litter by a dilution-to-extinction technique. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2007, 60:521–533.PubMedCrossRef 54. Vesper S, McKinstry C, Cox D, Dewalt G: Correlation between ERMI values and other moisture and mold assessments of homes in the American Healthy Homes Survey. J Urban Health 2009, 86:850–860.PubMedCrossRef 55. Huttunen K, Rintala H, Hirvonen MR, Vepsalainen Cell press A, Hyvärinen A, Meklin T, Toivola M, Nevalainen A: Indoor air particles and bioaerosols before and after renovation of moisture-damaged buildings: the effect on biological activity and microbial flora. Environ Res 2008, 107:291–298.PubMedCrossRef 56. Sebastian A, Larsson L: Characterization of the microbial community in indoor environments: a chemical-analytical approach. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003, 69:3103–3109.PubMedCrossRef 57. Haugland RA, Brinkman N, Vesper SJ: Evaluation of rapid DNA extraction methods for the quantitative detection of fungi using real-time PCR analysis. J Microbiol Methods 2002, 50:319–323.PubMedCrossRef 58. EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database [http://​www.​ebi.​ac.​uk/​embl] 59. Felsenstein J: PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3.6. [http://​www.​phylip.​com/​] Seattle: Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington; 2005. 60.