X-ray diffraction was used for
the determination of the intercalated products. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 563-573, 2011″
“Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African children.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcome of PCP in South African children living in a high HIV-prevalence area in the context of a free, available antiretroviral therapy program.
Methods: Sequential children AZD6738 mouse hospitalized with hypoxic pneumonia were prospectively enrolled from November 2006 to August 2008. Sociodemographic, historical, clinical, and outcome data were collected. A nasopharyngeal aspirate and lower
respiratory tract sample (induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage) were submitted for PCP immunofluorescence. Lower respiratory tract samples were also investigated for bacterial, mycobacterial, and viral pathogens.
Results: A total of 202 children were enrolled; 124 (61.4%) were HIV-infected; 34 (16.8%) were HIV-exposed but uninfected and 44 (21.8%) were HIV-unexposed. Among HIV-exposed children, 70 (44.3%) had participated in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission program, but only 18.4% were taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. PCP occurred in 43 children (21.3%) of whom 33 (76.7%) were HIV-infected. The case fatality of HSP990 chemical structure children with PCP was higher than those without PCP (39.5% vs. 21.4%; relative risk, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.97; P = 0.01).
Conclusions: PCP is a common cause of hypoxic pneumonia and mortality in HIV-infected South African infants. Underuse of the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission program and failure to institute trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-exposed children identified through the program are important obstacles to reducing PCP incidence.”
“Strain mediated magnetoelectric (ME) interactions have been investigated in a sample consisting of oppositely
poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and asymmetric magnetostrictive layers. A thin layer of Ni with negative magnetostriction Smoothened Agonist cell line and amorphous ferromagnetic Metglas with positive magnetostriction are bonded to the PZT layers. It is shown that the magnetic layers facilitate effective excitation of bending oscillations in the structure, whereas the use of oppositely poled PZT layers results in an increase in the ME voltage at the bending resonance frequency, suppression of the voltage at the longitudinal electromechanical resonance frequency, and cancellation of thermal fluctuation in the voltage. The ME voltage coefficient at resonance is 18 V/(cm Oe); that is an order of magnitude higher than the value measured for a Ni-PZT bilayer of similar dimensions. Theoretical estimates of the ME voltage and resonance frequency are in good agreement with the data.