beta vector proved more efficient in beta-globin expression and correction of the beta-thalassemia phenotype. Following transplantation in the Hbb(th3/+) mouse model, the expression efficiency by the two vectors was similar, whereas the HS40.beta vector achieved relatively selleck kinase inhibitor more stable
transgene expression. In addition, in an ex vivo assay using CD34+ cells from thalassemic patients, both vectors achieved significant human beta-globin expression and restoration of the thalassemic phenotype as evidenced by enhanced erythropoiesis and decreased apoptosis. Our data suggest that FV vectors with the alpha-globin HS40 element can be used as alternative but equally efficient vehicles for human beta-globin gene expression for the genetic correction of beta-thalassemia. Gene Therapy (2012) 19, 303-311; doi:10.1038/gt.2011.98; published online 7 July 2011″
“Astrocytes comprise approximately half of the volume of the adult mammalian brain and are the primary neuronal structural and trophic supportive elements. Astrocytes are organized into distinct nonoverlapping domains and extend elaborate and dense fine processes that interact
intimately with synapses and cerebrovasculature. The recognition in the mid 1990s that astrocytes undergo elevations in intracellular calcium concentration following activation of G protein-coupled receptors by synaptically released neurotransmitters demonstrated not only that astrocytes Bafilomycin A1 chemical structure display a form of excitability but also that astrocytes may be active participants in brain information processing. The roles that astrocytic calcium elevations play in neurophysiology and especially in modulation of neuronal activity have been intensely researched in recent years. This review will summarize the current understanding of the function of astrocytic calcium signaling in neurophysiological processes and discuss areas where the role of astrocytes remains controversial and will therefore benefit from further study.”
“Poly(squaramides) are a novel class of anion-responsive macromolecules that incorporate the diaminocyclobutenedione
hydrogen Selleckchem Nepicastat bond donor group into the polymer backbone. Herein, the synthesis and properties of a series of fluorene-based poly(squaramides) varying in conformational rigidity, squaramide content, and propensity for aggregation are described. Structure activity relationships for the anion sensory behavior of these polymers (as probed by fluorescence titrations, dynamic light scattering, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy) indicate that anion-induced polymer aggregation leads to a cooperative response with enhanced levels of sensitivity and selectivity. These observations are consistent with a mechanism involving noncovalent cross-linking of polymer chains through squaramide anion hydrogen-bonding interactions and point toward new applications of polyamides as stimulus-responsive materials.