But concern lingers that DAs might introduce cognitive biases.\n\nMethods: We recruited 663 women at high risk of breast cancer and presented them with a DA designed to experimentally test potential methods of identifying and reducing cognitive biases that could influence this decision, by varying specific Compound C in vitro aspects of the DA across participants in a factorial design.\n\nResults: Participants were susceptible to a cognitive bias – an order effect – such that those who learned first about the risks of tamoxifen thought more favorably of the drug than women who learned first about
the benefits. This order effect was eliminated among women who received additional information about competing health risks.\n\nConclusion: We discovered that the order of risk/benefit information influenced women’s perceptions of tamoxifen. This bias was eliminated by providing
contextual information about competing health risks. Practice implications: We have demonstrated the feasibility of using factorial experimental designs to test whether DAs introduce cognitive biases, and whether specific elements of DAs can reduce such biases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an analogue of lacidipine, CZ454 in in vitro and in vivo. The isometric tension of Sprague-Dawley rat arterial ring segments was recorded by a myography system. Intracellular calcium of vascular smooth muscle was determined by the confocal laser microscopy. Blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats was measured using AZD5363 molecular weight a tail-cuff blood pressure system. The results showed that CZ454 (10(-9)-10(-6)mol/L) relaxed
the mesenteric artery selleck contracted by high K+ concentration-dependently, which was not affected by removal of the endothelium. CZ454 treatment shifted the concentration-contractile curves induced by phenylephrine, U46619, KCl and CaCl2 to the right with the decreased E-max. CZ454 was more potent in the coronary and basilar artery than in the mesenteric artery. CZ454 did not reduce phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction: however, it did inhibit the contraction caused by addition of CaCl2 and did not change caffeine-induced contraction in the mesenteric artery in Ca2+-free solution. CZ454 decreased the vasoconstriction induced by Bay K 8644 in the presence of 60mmol/L K+ CZ454 1.0 mg/kg administered by gavage lowered the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure by 20% and 17%, respectively. It was concluded that CZ454 lowers blood pressure and relaxes arteries with higher potency in coronary and basilar artery and that the vasodilation may involve inhibition of calcium influx.”
“Objective: The link between impulsive personality traits and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is well established. No studies, however, have investigated whether receipt of help for AUDs predicts change in impulsivity or whether such change is associated with relevant outcomes such as legal problems.