e related components and give emphasis to intracellular processes

e related components and give emphasis to intracellular processes oriented towards the pathogen elimination. Transcripts identifying lysozyme Recognized in 1922 as an antibacterial molecule and abundant in various animal secretions, lyzozyme hydro lyzes 1,4 beta linkages in peptidoglycan JQ1 and chitodextrin structures. In flies and other invertebrates, lysozyme expression and activity increase after exposure to bac teria, and the species specific gene number partly depends on the use of bacteria as food resource. Up regulation of the mussel lysozyme, with increased per centage of hemocytes expressing lysozyme mRNA, was observed at 2 3 days post injection of Vibrio anguil larum or Micrococcus lysodeikticus whereas maximum expression occurred after 3 hours in hemo cytes immunostimulated in vitro.

In Mytibase, the 8 MGCs denoting lysozymes can mainly be classified in types C and G, among them, MGC02986 is similar to a C type lysozyme described in insects but not yet reported in molluscs. Definition and validation of a M. galloprovincialis Immunochip Owing to the continuous growth of the GenBank Uni ProtKB SwissProt databases, recurrent similarity searches and manual validation of the emerging similari ties guided the progressive selection of 1,820 MGCs to be confirmed as components of the mussel immunome. Probes of 54 57 nucleotide length have been designed using the 3 end transcript region templates and spotted in four repli cates to prepare a new DNA microarray platform, namely a M. galloprovincialis Immunochip.

Taking advantage of a large immunostimulation trial conducted in vivo on mussels from three different European regions we selected and processed hemo lymph samples collected at 3 and 48 hours after the injection of 10 million exponentially growing Vibrio splendidus cells into the adductor muscle. Total RNA was purified from two hemolymph pools per time point, and from paired saline injected control mus sels sampled at 3 and 48 h. As the amplified Cy3 Cy5 labeled targets were competitively dye swap tested on the mussel Immunochip, the reciprocal hybridizations of a target pair on quadruplicated probes yielded 8 fluorescence signals per probe. Looking at the total hybridization data set, 21. 8% of the mussel probes gave significant fluorescence with a range of 13. 5 27. 7% per individual array and average values of 17. 2% and 26.

4% lighted spots at 3 and 48 hours, respectively. These percentages reasonably GSK-3 relate to the number of differentially expressed genes estimated by permutation from the abso lute level and standard deviation of the replicates. Soon after the immune stimulation, the over expressed genes are consistently more numerous than the under Volasertib supplier expressed, whereas later in time their proportion roughly equals. Con verting the log2 values by the relative fold change of expression, they range over two orders of magnitudes from 7. 3 to 8. 9 and from 7. 6 to 9. 6. Hierarchical clustering of the Immunochip profiles clearly shows the resemb

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