In a social interaction model, at least 10 consecutive days of so

In a social interaction model, at least 10 consecutive days of social defeat appear necessary for depression like symptomology to appear, at least in a subset of suscep tible animals. Similarly, multiple repeats of stress episodes are also necessary in the chronic mild stress model of depression. It should be noted that single episodes of stress can elicit behavioural changes, however, these are considered characteristic of anxiety per se, rather than depression. With respect to anxiety, we cannot completely discount the possibility that our sub chronic stress induced molecular changes are also related to anxiety. The link between stress and anxiety is well established and there is considerable over lap in the putative mechanisms and behaviours between anxiety and depression.

Furthermore, some antidepres sants also have anxiolytic properties. Regarding this pos sibility, there is conflicting evidence in the literature. It is known that a single restraint episode, for example, can result in the delayed appearance Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of anxiety like behaviour, and Kim and Han demonstrated that animals subjected to a more chronic restraint stress paradigm did not display anxiety related behaviours as assessed with the elevated plus maze. One explanation is that acute stress episodes are more likely to induce anxiety like behaviours and as the stress becomes more chronic there is a transition to a more Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries depression like behavioural phenotype. However, others have shown that anxiety like behaviours can be displayed, in addition to depression like ones, after many weeks of chronic restraint stress.

Clearly, more work needs to be done to understand the relationship between the nature of stress and the development of anxiety and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries depression. A poten tial limitation of the present study concerns the lack of a single acute stress group for comparison with the control and sub chronic groups. Notionally, this type of acute stressor might have caused a similar molecular profile. However, we consider this possibility to be extremely un likely given that Bland et al. used a single 80 minute session of electric shock, a stressor that is far more intense than our restraint stress, and found the stressed induced changes in neurotrophin transcripts in all regions of the mPFC, including ILmPFC, had returned to baseline by 24 hours post stress.

To identify stress related mechanisms that may poten tially lead to the development of pathology, we first car ried out a genome wide gene expression analysis using Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries moderately stringent criteria to define differentially expressed genes. A number of previous studies have also taken this approach, but direct gene Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries by gene com parisons with these studies is problematic due to the dif ferent stress paradigms and microarray platforms used, as well as variation in brain region taken for selleck chemicals llc analysis.

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