promoted the response mainly through Ca2 release from intracellul

promoted the response mainly through Ca2 release from intracellular reservoirs, in agreement with the canonical Gq PLC pathway selleck chemical for these receptors. UTP or high concentrations of UDP also induced the phosphorylation of MAPK p44 and p42. at high concentrations, UDP acted principally on the P2Y2 receptor, since P2Y6 is stimulated by UDP in the low uM range. Phosphorylation of MAPK was inhibited by suramin, a potent antagonist for P2Y2 and weak for P2Y6, but it was not affected by PPADS, which is inactive toward P2Y2 but able to antagonize P2Y6 activa tion. Taken together, our data indicated a main role of the P2Y2 receptor in MAPK activation. There is ample evidence that these protein kinases are involved in the proliferative phenomenon activated by G protein cou pled receptors in various cell systems ].

in addition, p44 and p42 MAPK activation dependent on P2Y2 or P2Y6 receptors has been described, e. g, in gran ulosa luteal cells, glioma cells, and embryonic stem cells. Staurosporin or long term incuba tion with PMA blocked UTP induced p44 and p42 MAPK phosphorylation. In addition, p44 and p42 MAPK phosphorylation was blocked in BAPTA loaded cells, strongly suggesting that a calcium dependent PKC par ticipates in this response. Activation of MAPK p44 and p42 is directly related to induction of cell proliferation. Our results demon strated that UTP and UDP induced a robust proliferative response similar to that of 10% FBS used as positive con trol. ATP induced a proliferative response at 10 uM, but no effect was observed with higher concentrations.

This supports the idea that P2Y2 is the main receptor involved in the response, but an ancillary participation of P2Y6 cannot yet be e cluded. The regulation of theca cell pro liferation is relevant during Batimastat folliculogenesis, and it might be involved in pathological processes, such as the altered androgen estrogen balance associated with poly cystic ovary syndrome, a common disease characterized by uncontrolled theca cell proliferation. In this con te t, purinergic signaling can activate a feedback mecha nism by inducing a proliferative or an apoptotic response in TIC. ATP actions to stimulate TIC proliferation through P2Y2 receptor activation should be taken into account, together with the effects described for other neurotransmitters that seem to regulate specific pro cesses in the ovary.

For e ample, previous evidence showed that human granulosa luteal cells e press M1 and M5 muscarinic receptors as well as P2Y2 purinergic receptors, stimulation of either system by acetyl inhibitor AZD9291 choline or ATP can promote granulosa luteal cell prolif eration. Stimulation of B adrenergic receptors also modulates steroidogenic activity and ovulation and, given that neurotransmitters released from cate cholaminergic terminals might include ATP, it would be of interest to know the effect of activating purinergic receptors in these processes. The results also showed that P2Y2 receptor activation had an important effect on the LH si

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