Section 4 investigates data aggregation process in details in hom

Section 4 investigates data aggregation process in details in homogeneous cluster-based schemes. In Section 5, different strategies in the data transmission phase are surveyed and analyzed. Finally, Section 6 summarizes the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some related open research areas for the design of cluster-based routing protocols are presented too.2.?Cluster Head SelectionThe first step in cluster-based protocols is the selection of CHs. CH as the local coordinator or sink of the cluster handles numerous tasks of coordination of the work between node members, collection of information within the cluster, data fusion processing and transmission of the aggregated data towards the global sink.
In addition, even division of the nodes into clusters is dependent on the number and location of the CHs. Therefore, CH selection plays a significant role in the subsequent procedures of a clustering algorithm and thus performance, lifetime and energy-efficiency of the network. Due to this importance, many researchers have focused on optimizing the CH selection process. Based on the different strategies implemented in CH selection processes, we classify them as self-organized schemes, assisted schemes and multi-factor evaluation schemes. Figure 2 shows the taxonomy of CH selection.Figure 2.The taxonomy of CH selection.2.1. Self-Organized SchemesIn these schemes, the CH selection decision is distributed within the network and each node. Either stochastically or involving some probabilistic parameters, nodes compete to be selected as CH.
Based on an absolute stoch
In civil engineering, damage in a structure generally causes a local increase in flexibility, which depends on the extent of the damage. However, it is very difficult to evaluate the structural condition and performance under today’s traffic and to decide which structural components need to be retrofitted or replaced by new structural members to optimize the available budget. Angular orientation is one of the key parameters in structural health monitoring [1] and an early warning of potential damages. Generally, rotation angle measurement has been successfully applied in many applications such as displacement measurement of high-rise buildings [2], examining deformations of bridge spans [3], ground movement monitoring [4,5], automobiles [6], etc.
Recently, there were some studies focusing on development of rotation measurement systems using a gyroscope [7,8].Rotation angle measurement systems are widely used nowadays to monitor deformations of large-scale civil structures GSK-3 such as long-span bridges, tunnels, dams, high-rise buildings, etc. In selleck chemical 2010, Park et al. [2] proposed a displacement measurement system for civil structures using a partitioning approach.

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