They first compared endothelial cell association in vivo in tumor

They first compared endothelial cell association in vivo in tumor-bearing mice after intravenous injection of PEGylated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes measuring either 100nm (small liposomes) or 300nm (large liposomes). Since a superior association with tumor blood vessels and lower extravasation was observed with large liposomes over small ones, they used the former for ligand Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical conjugation. Dual-ligand labeled liposomes accumulated ~3-fold more in tumors than unmodified or single ligand-modified liposomes, revealing synergy of the two ligands. Consistent with the tumor accumulation and blood vessel association results, only the dual-ligand doxorubicin-loaded

liposomes allowed protection against tumor growth and induced tumor blood vessel destruction that revealed a synergy of endothelial cell targeting and enhanced uptake for antiangiogenic therapy. Cationic liposomes selectively bound to endothelial cells in vivo with superior internalization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical over anionic or neutral liposomes due to the enrichment of tumor endothelial cell membranes with negatively charged lipids and heparan sulfate proteoglycan [172, 185, 186]. Superior accumulation of oxaliplatin in lung tumors was obtained after intravenous injection of PEG-coated cationic drug-loaded liposomes over neutral liposomes [187]. The same Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical group used cationic liposomes for delivery

of siRNA against the neoangiogenesis regulator, Argonaute 2 (Ago2) which resulted in Ago silencing in tumors together with apoptosis of tumor blood vessels and decreased tumor growth while no therapeutic effect was observed with cationic lipoplexes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prepared with an irrelevant siRNA [188, 189]. In support of the effect of the negative charge of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical angiogenic vessels, paclitaxel-loaded cationic liposomes (EndoTAG-1) induced endothelial cell apoptosis in vivo, retarded melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma tumor

growth, and decreased the number of melanoma lung metastases in vivo [190–192]. Recently, targeting of tumor vasculature by an aptamer directed against the tumor vasculature marker E-selectin has been reported [193]. E-selectin aptamer conjugated liposomes accumulated Astemizole in the tumor vasculature of breast cancer xenografts after intravenous injection, whereas no untargeted liposomes were detected in tumors, supporting use of this selective approach for vasculature-targeted drug delivery. The vasculature-targeting group used may be relevant only to a particular histology. Indeed, while the p15-RGR peptide which recognizes platelet-derived growth factor receptor β expressed by pericytes of the tumor vasculature identified by phage display against pancreatic cancer increased delivery of liposomes to pancreatic tumors in vivo, it did not direct liposomes to tumors in a melanoma model [194, 195].

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