This easily spread pathogen could change the epidemiology of TD i

This easily spread pathogen could change the epidemiology of TD in Nepal.29–32 The data from the current study were gathered in 2001 to 2003, so the situation may have further evolved since this study was performed. Although 77% of cases with diarrhea presented in the first week of illness, no significant difference Acalabrutinib was noted in the percentage of bacterial pathogens found with diarrhea lasting greater than 1 week versus less than 1 week (Table 4).

Protozoan pathogens namely Giardia and Cyclospora were significantly more likely to cause diarrhea lasting longer than 1 week (Table 4). Cyclospora remained a significant and highly seasonal pathogen in Nepal. Its impact on tourists is less, mainly because the disease peaks during the monsoon season when fewer tourists visit Nepal.33,34 The rate of diagnosis of Giardia (around 10%) is unchanged from previous studies. The low rates of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium have also remained unchanged.3,5 Helminths, as in our previous studies, are rarely found in the stools of patients with acute diarrhea, and none were detected in this study population. Multiple pathogens

were once again found to be common. Because click here pathogens were found in 27% of asymptomatic controls, it is likely that not all the pathogens present in a patient with diarrhea are causing symptoms. However, it does reinforce that in a highly endemic environment, if self-treatment of TD is not successful in eradicating

symptoms, other etiologies mainly parasitic may have to be sought. Despite the slight drop in ETEC numbers that may be biased by inclusion of patients with prior FQ treatment, ETEC remains an important pathogen causing 15% of diarrhea with an identifiable etiology (Table 2). Cholera B toxin subunit vaccines, shown to produce significant protection against ETEC strains producing LT and LT, Edoxaban ST combined,35 may be effective in preventing 10% of diarrhea in Nepal considering 70% of strains from cases in this study expressed LT or LT and ST enterotoxins. Better ETEC protection could be expected from newer vaccine candidates that employ both LT toxoid along with fimbrial antigens in our environment where 91% isolates from cases were either LT enterotoxin or CFA positive or both. Use of currently available cholera B toxin subunit vaccine for travel to Nepal with less than 10% of diarrhea prevention cannot be strongly recommended. This update on the microbiology of TD in Nepal should help travel medicine practitioners deliver pretravel advice regarding treatment of TD in Nepal. Besides following the usual food and water precautions, travelers should carry an FQ and azithromycin in their medical kit. For empiric self-treatment, one of the antibiotics should be used first with the other one reserved for treatment failures. For returned travelers with diarrhea lasting longer than 1 week, parasitic as well as bacterial etiologies should be sought.

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