Thus, the present results suggest an important exception from thi

Thus, the present results suggest an important exception from this rule. Exogenous control appears fluent and interference-resistant only once it is established and when it merely needs to be maintained across trials. In fact, what we know about the difference between exogenous buy AZD2281 and endogenous selection comes from studies using such “maintenance” conditions (i.e., pure blocks and no interruptions; e.g., Müller and Rabbitt, 1989 and Posner, 1980). The current results show that the process of intentionally selecting an exogenous mode of control seems at least as vulnerable as the process of selecting endogenous settings, at least when LTM

contains traces about competing, endogenous control settings. A remaining open question is how exactly endogenous-task interference disrupts processing on post-interruption, exogenous-task trials. Responses to sudden-onset stimuli have been proposed to reflect an unconditional, reflex-like response (e.g., Theeuwes, 2004). Therefore it would be a particularly noteworthy (and for this notion damaging) result RG7204 purchase if exogenous-task selection costs arise because the potency of the

exogenous stimulus to attract attention is reduced on post-interruption trials. Alternatively, it is also possible that the initial, exogenous pull of the exogenous stimulus remains intact and that it is only after visiting the exogenous stimulus that attention is (erroneously) brought back to inspect the central cue. We are currently investigating this important question by applying eye-tracking analyses to the exogenous/endogenous control paradigm. The LTM encoding/retrieval model of task selection that is supported by the current data has the potential of explaining traditional task-switching effects without invoking the need for passive, trial-to-trial carry-over of information. Such passive carry-over

is a hallmark of connectionist explanations for task-switch effects (Brown, Reynolds, & Braver, 2007; Gilbert and Shallice, 2002, Yeung and Monsell, 2003a and Yeung and Monsell, 2003b). Obviously, such models cannot explain selection costs that arise in the absence of any switch from the competing task. Also, these results cannot be explained by the kind of hybrid carry-over/LTM retrieval Astemizole model proposed by Waszak et al. (2003, Waszak, Hommel, & Allport, 2005). According to this account, interference does result—just as we assume––from LTM traces of earlier selection instances. However, it is the trial-to-trial carry-over of the no-longer relevant task representation (i.e., “task-set inertia”) that generates the vulnerability towards these LTM traces on switch trials. Instead, our results suggest that the a switch between competing tasks is only one instance of a broader category of events that lead to a working-memory updating state, which in turn allows interference from LTM traces to enter the system.

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