Two precursor states of the delayed fluorescence were identified:

Two precursor states of the delayed fluorescence were identified: P(+)Q(A)(-) and cyt c(2)(3+)Q(A)(-) whose enthalpy levels were 340 meV

and 1020 meV below A*, respectively. The free energy of the P+Q(A)(-) state relative to A* was -870 meV in whole cells. Similar values were obtained earlier for isolated reaction center and chromatophore. The free energies of cyt c(2)(3+)Q(A)(-) and P(+)Q(A)(-) states showed no or very weak (-6 meV/pH unit) pH-dependence, respectively, supporting the concept of pH-independent redox midpoint potential of Q(A)/Q(A)(-) in intact cells. In accordance with the multiphasic kinetics of delayed fluorescence, the kinetics of re-opening of the closed reaction center is also complex click here (it extends up to 1 s) as a consequence of acceptor and donor-side reactions. The control of charge export from the reaction center by light regime, redox agents and inhibitors is investigated. The complex kinetics may arise from the distribution of quinones in different redox states on the acceptor side (Q(B) binding site and pool) and from organization of electron transfer components in supercomplexes. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The individual risk of infection and requirements for medical

treatment after high-dose chemotherapy have been unpredictable. check details In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study INK1197 we investigated the potential of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) responsiveness

as a predictor. A total of 168 patients with multiple myeloma or lymphoma received a single dose of subcutaneous G-CSF (lenograstim, 263 mu g) after high-dose chemotherapy. Highly variable leukocyte peaks were measured and grouped as low (quartile 1; leukocytes 100-10 100/mu L), medium (quartile 2; leukocytes > 10 100-18 300/mu L), and high (quartiles 3/4; leukocytes > 18 300-44 800/mu L). G-CSF responsiveness (low vs medium vs high) was inversely correlated with febrile neutropenia (77% vs 60% vs 48%; P = .0037); the rate of infection, including fever of unknown origin (91% vs 67% vs 54%; P < .0001); days with intravenous antibiotics (9 vs 6 vs 5; P < .0001); and antifungal therapy (P = .042). In multivariate analysis, G-CSF responsiveness remained the only factor significantly associated with infection (P = .016). In addition, G-CSF responsiveness was inversely correlated with grade 3/4 oral mucositis (67% vs 33% vs 23%; P < .0001). G-CSF responsiveness appears as a signature of the myeloid marrow reserve predicting defense against neutropenic infection after intensive chemotherapy. This study is registered at as NCT01085058. (Blood. 2011; 117(7):2121-2128)”
“The neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta(A beta) has been implicated as a critical cause of Alzheimer’s disease.

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