Two randomized, 6-week, double-blind cross-over trials compared the lipid-modifying efficacy of ezetimibe/atorvastatin 10/20mg (n=353) or 10/40mg (n=280) vs. separate co-administration of ezetimibe 10mg plus atorvastatin 20mg (n=346) or 40mg (n=280), respectively, in hypercholesterolemic patients. Percent changes from baseline in LDL-C (primary endpoint) and other lipids (secondary endpoints) were assessed by analysis of covariance; triglycerides were evaluated by longitudinal-data analysis. Expected differences between FDC and the corresponding
co-administered doses were predicted from a dose-response relationship model; sample size was BMS-754807 estimated given the expected difference and equivalence margins (+/- 4%). LDL-C-lowering equivalence was based on 97.5% expanded confidence intervals (CI) for the difference
contained within the margins; equivalence margins for other lipids were not prespecified. Ezetimibe/atorvastatin Integrin inhibitor FDC 10/20mg was equivalent to co-administered ezetimibe+atorvastatin 20mg in reducing LDL-C levels (54.0% vs. 53.8%) as was FDC 10/40mg and ezetimibe+atorvastatin 40mg (58.9% vs. 58.7%), as predicted by the model. Changes in other lipids were consistent with equivalence (97.5% expanded CIs smaller than +/- 3%, included 0); triglyceride changes varied more. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Hypercholesterolemic patients administered ezetimibe/atorvastatin
10/20 and 10/40mg FDC had equivalent LDL-C lowering. This FDC formulation proved to be an efficacious and generally well-tolerated lipid-lowering therapy.”
“Microbiomes associated with multicellular organisms influence the disease susceptibility of hosts. The potential exists for such bacteria to protect wildlife from infectious diseases, particularly in the case of the globally distributed and highly virulent fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis of the global panzootic lineage (B. dendrobatidis GPL), responsible for mass extinctions and population declines of amphibians. B. dendrobatidis GPL exhibits wide genotypic and virulence variation, and the ability of candidate probiotics to restrict growth across B. dendrobatidis selleck compound isolates has not previously been considered. Here we show that only a small proportion of candidate probiotics exhibited broad-spectrum inhibition across B. dendrobatidis GPL isolates. Moreover, some bacterial genera showed significantly greater inhibition than others, but overall, genus and species were not particularly reliable predictors of inhibitory capabilities. These findings indicate that bacterial consortia are likely to offer a more stable and effective approach to probiotics, particularly if related bacteria are selected from genera with greater antimicrobial capabilities.