B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN) mainly occurs in children. Patients with HBV-GN are frequently positive for serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), but they are rarely negative. Objective: To explore the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with HBV-GN who are serum HBsAg negative. Study design: Five children with HBV-GN who are negative for HBsAg were included in this study. Their clinical and pathological characteristics were collected and analyzed. Results: All 5 children presented with different levels of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Renal biopsies showed membranous nephropathy accompanied by HBsAg and/or HBcAg deposits in glomeruli in all of the children. Steroids and/or other immunosuppressants were administered in all cases without antiviral therapy during the early stages of treatment. Two children achieved complete remission STA-9090 manufacturer but relapsed after the drugs were tapered down. The other 3 children were initially non-responsive but achieved remission after lamivudine was added. Conclusions: Treatment of HBsAg-negative HBV-GN patients with immunosuppressants alone could not achieve satisfactory LY3023414 supplier effects. Antiviral
treatment is effective and may be necessary in this type of patient. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Effects of superficial gas velocity and top clearance on gas holdup, liquid circulation velocity, selleck chemicals mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient are investigated in a new airlift loop photobioreactor (PBR), and empirical models for its rational control and scale-up are proposed. In addition, the impact of top clearance on hydrodynamics, especially on the gas holdup in the internal airlift loop reactor, is clarified; a novel volume expansion technique is developed to determine the low gas holdup in the PBR. Moreover, a model strain of Chlorella vulgaris is cultivated in the PBR and the volumetric power is analyzed with a classic model,
and then the aeration is optimized. It shows that the designed PBR, a cost-effective reactor, is promising for the mass cultivation of microalgae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Bone substitute materials allowing trans-scaffold migration and in-scaffold survival of human bone-derived cells are mandatory for development of cell-engineered permanent implants to repair bone defects. In this study, we evaluated the influence on human bone-derived cells of the material composition and microstructure of foam scaffolds of calcium aluminate. The scaffolds were prepared using a direct foaming method allowing wide-range tailoring of the microstructure for pore size and pore openings. Human fetal osteoblasts (osteo-progenitors) attached to the scaffolds, migrated across the entire bioceramic depending on the scaffold pore size, colonized, and survived in the porous material for at least 6 weeks.