) seeds was determined by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two fatty acids (99.9%) have been identified in the fixed oil. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (50.2%), oleic acid (19.9%), margaric acid (10.3%), cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid (7.7%) and stearic acid (2.5%). The effect of black cumin oil on in vitro percutaneous absorption of the model lipophilic Omipalisib in vitro drug carvedilol was investigated using excised rat abdominal skin. Transdermal flux, permeability coefficient and enhancement factor were calculated for different concentrations of oil in isopropyl alcohol. Black cumin oil (5% v/v)
exhibited the highest enhancement in permeation. The increase in the permeability of the drug is due to increased drug diffusivity through the stratum corneum under the influence of black cumin oil. A higher content of linoleic acid (and other unsaturated fatty acids) in the oil has been postulated to be responsible for the enhancement
of in vitro percutaneous absorption of the drug.”
“Most PLX3397 ic50 of the arborescent Croton species in the New World were treated by Webster as belonging either to C. sect. Cylostigma Griseb. or C. sect. Luntia (Neck. ex Raf.) G.L. Webster. The circumscription of C. sect. Cyclostigma has been treated recently. In this paper we focus on C. sect. Luntia, which was subdivided by Webster into two subsections, C. subsect. Matourenses and subsect. Cuneati. Using chloroplast trnL-F and nuclear ITS DNA sequence
data, morphology and a broader sampling of additional Croton lineages, we found that the two subsections are not closely related and form distinct monophyletic groups. Substantial morphological differences support the molecular data. A taxonomic recircumscription of the two subsections, elevated to sectional level, is proposed. A key and taxonomic revision, with new synonyms, is provided for C. sect. Cuneati; together with the description of a new Histone Methyltransf inhibitor species from the coastal mountains of Venezuela, Croton domatifer. The new species is the only one in the genus known to possess leaf domatia. We infer that species in the Cuneati clade have lost the typical Croton caruncle, and some of them have evolved a different, specialized type of aril. We hypothesize that the arillate seeds are an adaptation to dispersal by fish in the Orinoco and Amazon river basins.”
“We investigated physiological parameters (elemental and biochemical composition, metabolic rates, feeding activity and growth) of adult Antarctic krill in the Lazarev Sea in late spring (December), mid autumn (April) and mid winter (July and August) to evaluate proposed hypotheses of overwintering mechanisms.