Further, there was large variability in the values observed

Further, there was large variability in the values observed.

This suggested lack of validity of this assay and therefore, these data were not reported. Performance tests Participants performed a 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint test on a Lode selleck chemical Excalibur Sport 925900 cycle ergometer (Lode BV, Groningen, The Netherlands) at a standardized work rate of 7.5 J/kg/rev. The seat position was recorded for each participant and used in all subsequent performance tests. Each participant was asked to pedal as fast as possible prior to application of the workload and sprint at all-out maximal capacity during the 30-second test. Test-to-test variability in performing repeated Wingate anaerobic capacity tests in our laboratory yielded correlation coefficients of r = 0.98 ± 15% for mean power [12]. Participants practiced the anaerobic capacity test during the familiarization session to minimize learning effects. One participant opted out of performance testing due to

a prior injury not resulting from participation in the study. Side effect assessment Participants were given daily questionnaires on how well they tolerated the supplement, how well they followed the supplement protocol, and Hydroxylase inhibitor if they experienced any medical problems/symptoms during the study. Compliance to the supplementation protocol was monitored daily as participants returned to the lab to hand in urine jugs and complete a daily questionnaire. After completing the compliance procedures, participants were given the required

supplements and dosages for the following supplementation period. Statistical analysis All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS V.20 (Chicago, IL) software. Rebamipide Study data were analyzed by Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) with repeated measures. Overall MANOVA effects were examined using the Wilks’ Lambda time and group x time p-levels as well as MANOVA univariate ANOVA group effects. Greenhouse-Geisser univariate tests of within-subjects time and group × time effects and between-subjects univariate group effects were reported for each variable analyzed within the MANOVA model. The sum of daily-whole body Cr PARP inhibitor retention during the study was evaluated by a studentized t-test to determine any differences between groups. Data were considered statistically significant when the probability of type I error was 0.05 or less. If a significant group, treatment, and/or interaction alpha level was observed, Tukey’s least significant differences (LSD) post-hoc analyses was performed to determine where significance was obtained. Results Urinary creatine excretion and retention Table 1 presents daily urinary Cr excretion and whole-body Cr retention data. A significant time effect was observed in both daily urinary Cr excretion (p = 0.001) and whole-body retention (p = 0.001), in which post hoc analysis demonstrated similar time effects throughout the supplementation protocol (Table 1). No significant differences were observed between groups (p = 0.

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