(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“The emergence

(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The emergence of nanocarrier systems in drug delivery applications has ushered in rapid development of new classes of therapeutic agents which can provide an essential breakthrough in the fight against refractory diseases. However, successful

clinical application of nano-drug delivery devices has been limited mainly due to the lack of control on sustained release of therapeutics from the carriers. A wide range of sophisticated approaches employs the formation of crosslinkable, non-crosslinkable, stimuli-responsive polymer nanocarriers in order to enhance their delivery efficiency. selleck compound Despite the extensive research conducted on the development of various nanocarriers, the effect of the biological milieu on the drug release profile of these constructs is not yet fully investigated. In particular, the formation of a protein corona on the surface of nanocarriers, when they interact with living organisms in vivo is largely decisive for their biological function. Using a number of synthetized (i.e., superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and polymeric nanocapsules) and

commercialized nanocarriers (i.e., Abraxane (R), albumin-bound paclitaxel drug), this study demonstrates that the protein corona can shield the nanocarriers and, consequently, alters the release profile of the drugs from the nanocarriers. More specifically, the protein corona could significantly reduce Caspase-3 Inhibitor the burst effect of either protein conjugated nanocarriers or carriers with surface loaded drug (i.e., SPIONs). However, the corona shell only slightly

changed the release profile of polymeric nanocapsules. Therefore, the intermediary, buffer effect of the protein shells on the surface of nanoscale carriers plays a crucial role in their successful high-yield applications in vivo. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic bacterium, associated with gastric inflammation and peptic ulcers. D-Amino acid dehydrogenase is a flavoenzyme that digests free neutral D-amino acids yielding corresponding 2-oxo acids and hydrogen. We sequenced the H. pylori NCTC 11637 D-amino acid dehydrogenase gene, dadA. The primary structure deduced from the gene showed low similarity with Ricolinostat mw other bacterial D-amino acid dehydrogenases. We purified the enzyme to homogeneity from recombinant Escherichia coli cells by cloning dadA. The recombinant protein, DadA, with 44 kDa molecular mass, possessed FAD as cofactor, and showed the highest activity to D-proline. The enzyme mediated electron transport from D-proline to coenzyme Q(1), thus distinguishing it from D-amino acid oxidase. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values were 40.2 mM and 25.0 mu mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively, for dehydrogenation of D-proline, and were 8.2 mu M and 12.

e , pre-programming) The potential

e., pre-programming). The potential SIS3 solubility dmso for maternal hormone induced-adaptation may be of considerable evolutionary significance in viviparous animals. However, to date, there is no such direct evidence that circulating maternal corticosterone passes through the placenta and into the embryos of viviparous reptiles. In this study,

we assessed the transfer of (3)H-corticosterone injected into females of the lizard Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii into maternal blood, maternal liver, the embryo, the yolk and the amniotic fluid during mid-to-late gestation. We provide direct evidence that circulating maternal corticosterone passes through the placenta into the embryos in this species. Transfer of maternal corticosterone into the embryos significantly decreased at the end of embryonic

development. We discuss these results in terms of the relationships between the degree of corticosterone transfer and embryonic stage. These results demonstrate the potential for direct effects of maternal corticosterone, including endocrine pre-programming, upon the developing embryos in viviparous lizards. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular alpha-synuclein (eSNCA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease or related synudeinopathies by inducing neurotoxicity directly or indirectly via microglial or astroglial activation. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be characterized. To buy AZD1390 explore these mechanisms, we combined three biochemical techniques stable isotope labeling of amino

acid in cell cultures (SILAC), biotin labeling of plasma membrane proteins followed by affinity purification, and analysis of unique proteins binding to SNCA peptides on membrane arrays. The SILAC proteomic analysis identified 457 proteins, of which, 245 or 172 proteins belonged to membrane or membrane associated proteins, depending on the various bioinformatics tools used for interpretation. In dopamine Epigenetic inhibitor mouse neuronal cells treated with eSNCA, the levels of 86 membrane proteins were increased and 35 were decreased compared with untreated cells. In peptide array analysis, 127 proteins were identified as possibly interacting with eSNCA. Of those, seven proteins were overlapped with the membrane proteins that displayed alterations in relative abundance after eSNCA treatment. One was ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, which appeared to modulate eSNCA-mediated neurotoxicity via mechanisms related to JAK1/STAT3 signaling but independent of eSNCA endocytosis.”
“We measured CO2 concentration and determined evasion rate and piston velocity across the water-air interface in flow-through chambers at eight stations along two 20 km long streams in agricultural landscapes in Zealand, Denmark. Both streams were 9-18-fold supersaturated in CO2 with daily means of 240 and 340 mu M in January-March and 130 and 180 mu M in June-August.

hMTH1 expression protected these cells from 3-NP and H2O2-induced

hMTH1 expression protected these cells from 3-NP and H2O2-induced killing, by counteracting the mutant hit-dependent increased vulnerability and accumulation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA 8-hydroxyguanine levels. hMTH1 expression reverted the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential characteristic of Hdh(Q111) cells and delayed the increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species associated with 3-NP treatment. selleck inhibitor Further indications of hMTH1-mediated mitochondrial protection are the partial reversion of 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial morphology and the modulation of DRP1 and MFN1 proteins, which control fusion/fission rates of mitochondria. Finally,

in line with the in vitro findings, upon 3-NP in vivo treatment, 8-hydroxyguanine levels in mitochondrial DNA from heart, muscle and brain are significantly lower in transgenic hMTH1-expressing mice than in wild-type GSK1838705A animals. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND. MiR-145 is down-regulated in various human cancers. We previously demonstrated

that some actin-binding proteins were targeted by several microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-145, in bladder and prostate cancer (CaP). The aim of this study is to determine a novel oncogenic gene targeted by miR-145 by focusing on actin-binding proteins in CaP.\n\nMETHODS. We focused on the SWAP switching B-cell complex 70 kDa subunit (SWAP70), which is an F-actin binding protein involved in activating B-cell transformation. A luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the actual binding sites between miR-145 and SWAP70 mRNA. Cell viability was evaluated by cell proliferation, wound healing, and matrigel invasion assays in si-SWAP70 transfectants. A total of 75 clinical prostate specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry of SWAP70.\n\nRESULTS. NVP-AUY922 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor Molecular target searches of this miRNA and the luciferase reporter assay showed that SWAP70 was directly regulated by miR-145. Silencing of SWAP70 studies demonstrated

significant inhibitions of cell migration and invasion in CaP cell lines. The SWAP70 positive-staining was significantly higher in percentage in the CaP than in benign prostate hyperplasia tissue.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Down-regulation of miR-145 was a frequent event in CaP, and it may have a tumor suppressive function. SWAP70 may be a target of miR-145, and it might have a potential oncogenic function. The novel molecular networks though which miR-145 acts, may provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of CaP. Prostate 71: 1559-1567, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“An increasing number of studies have documented that sublethal pesticide exposure can change predator-prey interactions. Most of these studies have focused on effects of long-term pesticide exposure on only one type of antipredator traits and have not directly linked changes in these traits to mortality by predation.

coli, and their expression amount reached to the maximum after 4

coli, and their expression amount reached to the maximum after 4 h induced by IPTG, indicating that the alpha-gliadin genes can express LY2606368 nmr in a high level under the control of T(7) promoter.”
“Plasmids, conjugative transposons and phage frequently encode anti-restriction

proteins to enhance their chances of entering a new bacterial host that is highly likely to contain a Type I DNA restriction and modification (RM) system. The RM system usually destroys the invading DNA. Some of the anti-restriction proteins are DNA mimics and bind to the RM enzyme to prevent it binding to DNA. In this article, we characterize ArdB anti-restriction proteins and their close homologues, the KlcA proteins from a range of mobile genetic elements; including an ArdB encoded on a pathogenicity island from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and a KlcA from an IncP-1b plasmid, pBP136 isolated from Bordetella pertussis. We show that all the ArdB and KlcA act as anti-restriction proteins and inhibit the four main families of Type I RM systems in click here vivo, but fail to block the restriction endonuclease activity of the archetypal Type I RM enzyme, EcoKI, in vitro indicating that the action of ArdB is indirect and very different from that of the DNA mimics. We also present the structure determined by NMR spectroscopy of the pBP136 KlcA protein. The structure shows

a novel protein fold and it is clearly not a DNA structural mimic.”
“Objective: To evaluate the association between pre-pregnancy this website body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes using a large administrative database. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of California women delivering singletons in 2007. The association between pre-pregnancy BMI category and adverse outcomes were evaluated using

multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among 436,414 women, increasing BMI was associated with increasing odds of adverse outcomes. Obese women (BMI = 30-39.9) were nearly 3x more likely to have gestational diabetes (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.74-2.92) and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (2.68, 2.59-2.77) and nearly twice as likely to undergo cesarean (1.82, 1.78-1.87), when compared to normal BMI women (BMI = 18.5-24.9). Morbidly obese women (BMI >= 40) were 4x more likely to have gestational diabetes (4.72, 4.46-4.99) and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (4.22, 3.97-4.49) and nearly 3x as likely to undergo cesarean (2.60, 2.46-2.74). Conclusion: There is a strong association between increasing maternal BMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This information is important for counseling women regarding the risks of obesity in pregnancy.”
“The chloroform extract of Cladonia substellata Vainio was assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of Dengue fever and Artemia salina. The extract was tested at concentrations ranging from I to 15 ppm in an aqueous medium for 24 h. LC(50) and LC(90) were evaluated.

Future efforts to construct protective microbiomes should incorpo

Future efforts to construct protective microbiomes should incorporate see more bacteria that exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition of B. dendrobatidis GPL isolates.”
“Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the multiple mini-interview (MMI) within a doctor of pharmacy

(PharmD) admissions model. Methods. Demographic data and academic indicators were collected for all candidates who participated in Candidates’ Day (n=253), along with the score for each MMI station criteria (7 stations). A survey was administered to all candidates who completed the MMI, and another survey was administered to all interviewers to examine perceptions of the MMI. Results. Analyses suggest that MMI stations assessed different attributes as designed, with Cronbach alpha for each station ranging from 0.90 to 0.95. All correlations between MMI station scores and academic indicators were negligible. No significant differences in average station scores were found based on age, gender, or race. Conclusion. This study provides additional support for the use of the MMI as an admissions tool in pharmacy education.”
“CADM1, a member of the immunoglobulin

superfamily cell adhesion molecule, acts as a tumor suppressor in a variety of human cancers. CADM1 is also ectopically expressed in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), conferring an invasive phenotype characteristic to ATL. Therefore, CADM1 plays dual roles BTSA1 order in human oncogenesis. Here, we investigate the roles of CADM1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that 10 of 35 (29%) primary SCLC tumors

express CADM1 protein. Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses reveal that CADM1 is significantly expressed in 11 of 14 SCLC cells growing in suspension cultures but in neither of 2 SCLC cells showing attached growth to plastic dishes, suggesting that CADM1 is involved in anchorage-independent growth in SCLC. In the present study, we demonstrate that SCLC expresses a unique splicing variant of CADM1 (variant 8/9) containing additional extracellular fragments corresponding to exon 9 in addition Navitoclax solubility dmso to variant 8, a common isoform in epithelia. Variant 8/9 of CADM1 is almost exclusively observed in SCLC and testis, although this variant protein localizes along the membrane and shows similar cell aggregation activity to variant 8. Interestingly, both variant 8/9 and variant 8 of CADM1 show enhanced tumorigenicity in nude mice when transfected into SBC5, a SCLC cell lacking CADM1. Inversely, suppression of CADM1 expression by shRNA reduced spheroid-like cell aggregation of NCI-H69, an SCLC cell expressing a high amount of CADM1. These findings suggest that CADM1 enhances the malignant features of SCLC, as is observed in ATL, and could provide a molecular marker specific to SCLC. (Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 10511057)”

The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques base

The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10 Omega.cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 10(12) cm(-2) is detected in the Al2O3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiNx:H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al2O3.”
“A case of

fatal asphyxia by helium inhalation from inside a plastic bag closed around the neck with tape is presented. Helium was identified by headspace gas chromatography in the intratracheal AZD0530 inhibitor gas, lung tissue and blood. Severe congestion of the organs was also observed. We concluded that the cause of death was asphyxia GSI-IX due to inhalation of helium, and identification of helium from intratracheal gas was useful for making this diagnosis.”
“Many orb-weaving spiders decorate their webs with conspicuous ultraviolet (UV)-reflective stabilimenta. The prey-attraction hypothesis suggests that stabilimenta are visually attractive to prey and thus may increase the spiders’ foraging success.

However, previous studies on the function of stabilimenta have produced conflicting results in Argiope species. Using a combination of field and laboratory studies, we examined whether the linear stabilimentum of Argiope bruennichi contributes to prey interception. We recorded prey interceptions in 53 webs with stabilimenta and 37 equally-sized webs without stabilimenta, classifying captured prey according to their taxonomical group and size. On average, 6.2 +/- 4.7 prey items were intercepted in webs with stabilimenta, while 3.2 +/- 2.9 items were intercepted in webs without stabilimenta. The effects of stabilimenta LY3039478 mouse on foraging success appear to be due to increased interception of UV-sensitive

insect pollinators, including 20 families of Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera. The mean number of UV-sensitive prey was 4.4 +/- 3.6 in webs with stabilimenta compared with 1.8 +/- 2.1 in webs without stabilimenta. Webs with and without stabilimenta did not differ in the mean number of UV-nonsensitive prey captured. The linear stabilimentum showed strong positive effects on the interception of large prey: webs with stabilimenta captured more than twice as many large prey (a parts per thousand yen5 mm) than webs without stabilimenta, whereas there was only a slight difference in the interception rates for small prey (< 5 mm). Comparisons among different Argiope species suggest that the stabilimentum may have different adaptive functions in different species or ecological contexts.

The expressions were limited to only some

The expressions were limited to only some DMH1 of the effector cells within a population, disclosing disparities in numbers and location between naive colonies and their immune challenged counterparts. Administration of the immunosuppression drug Cyclosporine-A during ascidian’s allogeneic assays inhibited both fusion and rejection reactions,

probably through the inhibition of ascidian’s immunocytes (morula cells) movement and activation. Our results, together with previous published data, depict an immunophilins-based immune mechanism, which is similarly activated in allogeneic responses of distantly related animals from sponges to humans. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Mosquito infections with natural isolates

of Plasmodium falciparum are notoriously variable and pose a problem for reliable evaluation of efficiency of transmission-blocking agents for malaria control interventions. Here, we show that monoclonal P. falciparum isolates produce higher parasite loads than mixed ones. Induction of the mosquito immune responses by wounding efficiently decreases Plasmodium numbers in monoclonal infections but fails to do so in infections with two or more parasite genotypes. Our results point to the parasites genetic complexity as a potentially crucial component of mosquito-parasite interactions. (C) 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this exploratory survey was to assess predictors for an see more academic career in a population of physicians working full time (FT) or part time (PT) in the north-western part of Switzerland. We also asked for individual attitudes, influences and motivations towards PT work.\n\nMETHODS: In a cross-sectional study,

resident and senior physicians were asked via hyperlink to complete an anonymous 91-item questionnaire. The completed questionnaires were collected anonymously online.\n\nRESULTS: Overall, 389 of 1104 (35%) questionnaires were Momelotinib concentration returned for analysis. Of the respondents, 68.1% worked FT and 31.9% PT. More women than men (57.5% vs 42.5%) responded to the questionnaire and more women than men (68.2% vs 31.8%) were working as residents. Of the FT physicians, 88.9% favoured a work reduction to 60.0-90.0%; 82.9% FT and 97.0% PT physicians considered the introduction of PT work opportunities in their hospital as reasonable. A higher academic score was reached by men (mean 3.69, SD 3.39) than by women (mean 2.22, SD 2.77). Among senior physicians, PT work had a significant influence on the academic score. The possibility to do research, followed by male gender, were the two most significant factors positively influencing an academic career.\n\nCONCLUSION: The possibility to perform research remains the most important predictor for a successful academic career. Working PT diminishes the chance of academic success.

beta vector proved more efficient in beta-globin expression and c

beta vector proved more efficient in beta-globin expression and correction of the beta-thalassemia phenotype. Following transplantation in the Hbb(th3/+) mouse model, the expression efficiency by the two vectors was similar, whereas the HS40.beta vector achieved relatively selleck kinase inhibitor more stable

transgene expression. In addition, in an ex vivo assay using CD34+ cells from thalassemic patients, both vectors achieved significant human beta-globin expression and restoration of the thalassemic phenotype as evidenced by enhanced erythropoiesis and decreased apoptosis. Our data suggest that FV vectors with the alpha-globin HS40 element can be used as alternative but equally efficient vehicles for human beta-globin gene expression for the genetic correction of beta-thalassemia. Gene Therapy (2012) 19, 303-311; doi:10.1038/gt.2011.98; published online 7 July 2011″
“Astrocytes comprise approximately half of the volume of the adult mammalian brain and are the primary neuronal structural and trophic supportive elements. Astrocytes are organized into distinct nonoverlapping domains and extend elaborate and dense fine processes that interact

intimately with synapses and cerebrovasculature. The recognition in the mid 1990s that astrocytes undergo elevations in intracellular calcium concentration following activation of G protein-coupled receptors by synaptically released neurotransmitters demonstrated not only that astrocytes Bafilomycin A1 chemical structure display a form of excitability but also that astrocytes may be active participants in brain information processing. The roles that astrocytic calcium elevations play in neurophysiology and especially in modulation of neuronal activity have been intensely researched in recent years. This review will summarize the current understanding of the function of astrocytic calcium signaling in neurophysiological processes and discuss areas where the role of astrocytes remains controversial and will therefore benefit from further study.”
“Poly(squaramides) are a novel class of anion-responsive macromolecules that incorporate the diaminocyclobutenedione

hydrogen Selleckchem Nepicastat bond donor group into the polymer backbone. Herein, the synthesis and properties of a series of fluorene-based poly(squaramides) varying in conformational rigidity, squaramide content, and propensity for aggregation are described. Structure activity relationships for the anion sensory behavior of these polymers (as probed by fluorescence titrations, dynamic light scattering, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy) indicate that anion-induced polymer aggregation leads to a cooperative response with enhanced levels of sensitivity and selectivity. These observations are consistent with a mechanism involving noncovalent cross-linking of polymer chains through squaramide anion hydrogen-bonding interactions and point toward new applications of polyamides as stimulus-responsive materials.

We present a case of RMVT associated with significant hypomagnese

We present a case of RMVT associated with significant hypomagnesemia (serum level DAPT = 1.1 mg/dL), which did not respond to intravenous (IV) adenosine and terminated repeatedly after IV magnesium. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated an origin from the left sinus of Valsalva, which was

successfully ablated. The combination of adenosine resistance and magnesium sensitivity may be consistent with an atypical RMVT mechanism related to inhibition of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+) ATPase). (PACE 2009; 32: e28-e30)”
“The endothelium functions as a semipermeable barrier regulating tissue fluid homeostasis and transmigration of leukocytes and providing essential nutrients across the vessel wall. Transport of plasma proteins and solutes across the endothelium involves two different routes: one transcellular, via caveolae-mediated vesicular transport, and the other paracellular, through interendothelial

junctions. The permeability of the endothelial barrier is an exquisitely regulated process in the resting state and in response to extracellular stimuli and mediators. The focus of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of molecular and signaling mechanisms regulating endothelial barrier permeability with emphasis on the cross-talk between paracellular and transcellular transport pathways.”
“Pregnancy is connected with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism CBL0137 mw (VIE). this website The pulmonary embolism (PE) as the most dangerous complication of vein thrombosis (DVT) is the leading

cause of maternal death during pregnancy. The development of ultrasonography in diagnosis of vascular disease significantly increased the diagnosis of vein thrombosis also in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to discuss the rules of VTE diagnostics, in particular ultrasonography and to present the recommendations for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors are widely applied in gene transfer and gene therapy because of their high transduction efficiency and stable expression. There are various quantification methods for the transduction efficiency (TE) calculation of lentiviral vectors, while most of them usually need serial dilutions and experimental materials costing. So it is required to develop a feasible quantification method for lentiviral vectors’ TE calculation. Here, we deduced a math equation between the number of infectious viral particles (v) and the transduction efficiency (TE): v = a ln (1-TE) + b. An HIV-1 based lentiviral vector FG12 encoding the GFP reporter gene was used to evaluate practicability of this method. According to the math equation, TE50 of FG12 was verified in different number of HeLa cells. Our results documented that the math equation was adopted into the TE calculation. Comparing with routine TE50 determination method, this method needed fewer serial dilutions and was more feasible.

“Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a neonatal-lethal genetic dise

“Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a neonatal-lethal genetic disease that affects all tissues, and features neuropathology that involves primary developmental defects as well as neurodegeneration. Neuropathological changes include abnormal neuronal migration affecting the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and inferior olivary complex, abnormal Purkinje cell arborisation, demyelination and post-developmental neuronal BLZ945 degeneration. ZS is caused by mutations

in peroxisome biogenesis, or PEX, genes which lead to defective peroxisome biogenesis and the resultant loss of peroxisomal metabolic function. The molecular and cellular bases of ZS neuropathology are still not completely understood. Attempts to explain the neuropathogenesis have implicated peroxisomal metabolic dysfunction, and more specifically the loss of peroxisomal products, such as plasmalogens and docosahexaenoic, and the accumulation of peroxisomal substrates, such as very-long-chain-fatty acids. In this review, consideration is also given to recent findings that implicate other candidate buy PHA-739358 pathogenetic factors, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein misfolding, aberrant cell signalling, and inflammation -

factors that have also been identified as important in the pathogenesis of other neurological diseases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“2,3,7,8-Tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one

of the most toxic dioxins belonging to the wide family of Endocrine Disruptors (EDs), environmental chemicals that adversely interfere with endocrine processes and upset normal function of some target systems. It has been hypothesized that EDs enter cellular cytosol, bind to the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)and form a heterodimer with the AhR nuclear translocator; this complex binds xenobiotic responsive elements that drive activation of the so-called “Ah gene battery” Spermatogenesis Related Factor-2 (SRF-2) is one of the most recently cloned genes involved in germ cell division and differentiation. whose expression seems to be affected by treatment with click here TCDD. With the aim to try to clarify the underlying mechanism of TCDD and to investigate if SRF-2 gene represents a good biomarker for ED exposure, we used Xenopus laevis as an animal model, considered to be almost insensitive toward TCDD effects. In this Study we reported the partial cloning of SRF-2 cDNA in X. laevis: we then evaluated the SRF-2 expression in embryos exposed to TCDD 0.62 mu M by real-time PCR. We also analyzed SRF-2 expression in several adult control tissues and in testis after perilymphatic injection of a single dose of 10 mu g/kg body weight. Although SRF-2 expression does not seem to be affected by the treatment, exposed embryos died within 15 days.